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What is the Great Pacific Garbage Patch?
tons of trash that floats to the middle of the pacific
How does habitat destruction affect primates?
fewer recourses and places to live. causes inbreeding
How does hunting affect primates?
Depletes already decreasing populations of primates, harvesting faster than they can reproduce.
How does pet trade affect primates?
kills parents, diseases, dominance hierarchies
Who was Travis the chimpanzee?
A pet chimpanzee who brutally attacked his owner's friend, Charla Nash
What are some of the challenges facing primate conservationists?
There are too many people to control who won’t approve of methods that cost them money, food, or land. Conservationists have to appeal to economic interests (ex. ecotourism). Another challenge is educating people about diseases, such as the hazards of eating bushmeat.
What is unique about E. African geology that makes it conducive to finding fossils?
The Great Rift Valley is plates pulling apart, which brings up fossils, ash layers are used to date fossils
what is breccia?
natural cement that can trap fossils
who/what is "little foot"
incredibly complete A. Africanus that has been trapped in breccia for over 15 years
how is site formation different in south Africa than in East Africa
a. South Africa- more complex, breccia, limestone caves b. E. Africa- volcanic ashes making dating easy
what are the major evolutionary changes that account for differences between apes and humans in the cranium?
brain size and diet
what are the major evolutionary changes that account for differences between apes and humans in the post crania (everything but the skull)
changes in locomotion and manipulation
what are specific differences between apes and humans in the post cranium
Vertebral column curvature, thorax shape, pelvic shape, big toe
what is the molecular clock?
looking at the changes between 2 species and the date they derived
What is the significance of Sahelanthopus tchadensis?
possible first hominoid
what are some of the problems with analysis and discussion of the very first hominids
Fragmentary, distorted samples
When did Australopithecines exist?
1-4 mya
What are the two general groups of Australopithecines?
Gracile and Robust
Where an when did Australopithecus afarensis (gracile) live?
Tansania and Ethiopia 3.7-2.8 MYA
What is Lucy? why is she important?
Most complete Gracile Australopithecus. 40% complete ?
What does brain size look like in the Australopithecus afarensis?
375-540cc (nearer to the chimp than that of the human)
What are some cranial features we know about Australopithcus afarenis (gracile)
1.strong postorbital construction 2. modern supraorbital torus 3. small sulcus 4. no sagittal crest but strong temporal lines 5. prognathic faces 6.large canines
what do the knee, peblis, and foot look like in Australopithcus afarenis (gracile)
wide pelvis, valgus angle, non-divergent big toe => bipedal
what do body proportions look liken Australopithcus afarenis (gracile)?
short. 3.5-5feet tall. Femur smaller than humerus
Sexual dimorphism in Australopithcus afarenis (gracile)
high sexual dimorphism. 1.5 ratio
Cranial characters of Robust vs Gracile
Robust - very large teeth, heavily built crania, long face, concave face, huge cheek bones, sagittal crest Gracile - nosagittal crest, dog like face, small brained
how does sagittal crest form?
eating food that requires a lot of chewing power
what unifies many features we se in robust Australopithcus?
Heavy jaw muscles and large sagittal crest
what sort of foods did robust australopithecines likely eat?
harder, tougher foods shelled fruits nuts social insects (termites)
whene do we see first members of our own genus?
2.5 mya
Where do the first members of our own genus arise?
E. Africa Olduvai Gorge Tansinia and Kenya
Cranial features of early Homo vs Australopithcus
bigger brains, shallower face, suffusion of forehead, moderate temporal lines with no crest
what is the oldowan? when does it date to?
Oldest tool, very basic. 2.5 mya
what does the oldowan signify about diet?
eating meat more regularly
What does brain size look like in Homo erectus?
cranial capacity average of 875cc, (750-1,067cc)
what are the disadvantages of a large brain?
difficult to give bitch, more parental investment, energetic demand, partuition
What are the other cranial features in Homo erectus? (4)
Vault thickness Nuchal crest Supraorbital torus Projecting nose
1) Who was Nariokotome Boy? When did he live? Why is he important?
1.6mya, Turkana, Kenya, extremely completespecimen.
what did the body proportions look like in honor erectus?
more modern. long legs relative to arms, narrow pelvis, increased body and brain size
What did the Achulean look like? When did it date to?
Well thought out tools that have been purposefully flaked on both sides (bifacial), around 1.5 MYA
what does the Achulean say about cognition in homo erectus?
they were smarter. more forethought planning
when and where was the first neandertal discovered
1856, Neander Valley
neandertal cranial features
sloping forehead, brow ridge normal teeth middle face jutting out (midfacial prognathism) large nasal opening
what were neandertals using their teeth for
how do we know neandertals were muscular? What do their arms look like?
more bone 50% more in one arm than the other, us its 5-15% big boned arms more activity means more bone
What are Allen and Bergmann's rules? (rules of thermoregulation)
1. animals in cooler environments have larger body masses 2. animals in colder environments have shorter limbs
What did the Neandertal La Chapelle-aux-Saints look like? What was wrong with him?
Had severe joint disease, healed fractures in his limbs and no teeth
What does the overall pattern of trauma look like in Neandertals? What modern group is most similar to them?
-very high level of injury -broken bones, head wounds, stab wounds -poorly healed bone trauma -most similar to bull riders/rodeo riders
What do we think Neandertals were doing to get such high levels of trauma? How do we interpret these levels of trauma?
Close contact with large animals Life was tough, neandertals were tough, survived long enough for injuries to heal, social caring
did neandertals burry the dead?
yes but not symbolically
did neandertals and modern humans interbreed?
yes, similar dan with western europeans
Skhul and Qafzeh. what do they look like, where do they come from?
Isreal. anatomically similar to modern humans
when did modern humans first get to eurasia
40,000 years ago
how were stone tools during the upper paleolithic period different than previously? how did the raw materials differ?
twice as long as they were wide, blade technology, much higher frequency raw materials:bones, stones, wood
how did weaponry differ? what is an atlatl?
attack at range and more accurately. Elaborate weapon used to throw long flexible darts
how did living structures differ from what we see with neandertals
huts made out of mammoth bones
What are some possible explanations for the meaning and distribution of Venus figurines?
May represent fertility, pregnancy, porn, or self portaraits
what do upper paleolithic burials look like?
more symbolic than before
functions of skin
a. waterproof coering to balance moisture b. keeps out pathogens c. protects tissues d. maintains temperature
What are the three pigments that affect skin color?
Hemoglobin Carotine Melanin
What cells produce melanin? What does increased melanin do?
Melanocytes; protects skin from UV radiation
What is the global pattern of variation in skin color? What two variables primarily affect skin pigmentation?
closer to the equator and higher the temperature means darker skin ?
advantages of dark skin
less chance of cancer, less burn
Advantages of light skin
Increased Vitamin D synthesis in low light environment, helps calcium absorption less susceptible to frostbite
trade-off system
live where your skin is meant to be
what is rickets? what causes it?
makes bones weak and pelvic smaller. caused y lack of vitamin D
what population is an interesting exception to the skin cool rule? why?
native americans. less time to have skin exposed
Who was samuel morton? what did he do?
polygenist meaasured skulls with mustard seeds
What did Stephen Jay Gould suggest were some of the problems with Morton's research?
Inconsistency with using the mustard seed, only using black females and white males
what is the cephalic index?
measure of cranial shape
What does brachycephalic and dolichocephalic mean?
brachycephalic= big and wide dolichocephalic= long and harrow
what is logical problem with measuring skulls as a way to get at intelligence or character?
larger animals have larger brains like elephants. but doesn't mean they are more intelligent. African grey parrot smart but super small brain
What is Phrenology?
the study of bumps on the brain
what was the experiment that franz boas ran on immigrant skulls?
jews were longer, sicilians were rounder
Who was Alfred Binet?
Measured heads of good students and bad students Found a difference of only 1 mm
How is IQ calculated?
Mental age/chronological age X 100
what was the original purpose of IQ tests?
help children with special needs
who was robert Yerkes?
Army guy. wanted to test recruits

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