UB PGY 412 - Exam 2 Study Guide (25 pages)

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Exam 2 Study Guide

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Exam 2 Study Guide


This study guide outlines the lectures concerning disorders of fluids and electrolytes, the cardiovascular system, and the respiratory system. Important figures and diagrams are included.

Study Guide
University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
Pgy 412 - Applied Physiology
Applied Physiology Documents

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PGY 412 Exam 2 Study Guide Fluid and Electrolyte Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders Total body water is distributed between two major compartments separated by the cell membrane called the intracellular ICF and extracellular fluid compartments ECF The extracellular fluid is subdivided into to interstitial fluid and the plasma which are separated by the capillary wall Water is able to move freely between each compartment but two forces are responsible for determining the direction of movement Hydrostatic pressure is responsible for pushing fluid into the interstitial space while osmotic oncotic pressure pulls fluid from the interstitial space Osmotic pressure differences between the ICF and ECF cause water movement across the cell membrane The membrane is highly permeable to water so a change in the osmolarity same as osmolality in this class in the ECF will result in the rapid movement of water fluid shift Generally the ICF and ECF are in osmotic equilibrium Anti diuretic hormone ADH regulates renal water excretion by changing the permeability of the distal tubule and the collecting duct ADH secretion is stimulated by changes in the osmolarity of body fluids and the volume and pressure of the vascular system When the osmolarity of body fluid increases or the volume or pressure is reduced an individual will perceive thirst Since sodium is the major determinant for plasma osmolarity disorders of the water balance will alter the plasma concentration of Na This will affect the volume of ECF not its osmolarity Generally sodium input is equal to the sodium output keeping the volume of ECF constant Primary ECF volume sensors are located in the vasculature Low pressure baroreceptors cardiac atria and pulmonary vessels respond to volume changes High pressure baroreceptors aorta carotid sinus afferent arterioles of kidneys respond to arterial blood pressure changes When ECF decreases sodium excretion is decreased via the renin

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