UB PGY 412 - Exam 1 Study Guide (19 pages)

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Exam 1 Study Guide

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Exam 1 Study Guide


Covers lectures for endocrinology and neurology. Outlines the basic concepts and important diseases and disorders of the endocrine system and the brain.

Study Guide
University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
Pgy 412 - Applied Physiology
Applied Physiology Documents

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PGY 412 Exam 1 Study Guide Endocrinology and Neurology Endocrine Disorders Lecture 1 Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland Overview o Endocrinology is the study of hormones their receptors and the intracellular signaling pathways they evolve o The endocrine system is the body s main system for communicating controlling and coordinating homeostasis o Hormones can be released at specific rates and rhythms such as diurnal 24 hours cycle pulsatile and cyclic However they are mostly dependent on circulating substrates that cue their release calcium sodium and other hormones o Every hormonal pathway features either a negative or positive feedback mechanism to control levels in the body For example thyroid hormone can circulate and inhibit the thyroid gland the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus in order to prevent more thyroid hormone from being released o Hormones will only affect cell that contain the unique receptor for that specific hormone Receptors can be up regulated meaning to increase the number of receptors on each cell in order to be more sensitive for detection of a small amount of circulating hormone In contrast receptors ca also be down regulated if there is a high concentration of hormone circulating in the bloodstream o Receptors for steroid hormones are located on the inside of cells since their nonpolar properties allow them to diffuse through the plasma membrane Protein hormones and catecholamines have receptors embedded in the plasma membrane because they cannot move through the membrane o Endocrine function can be impaired as a result of aging illness physical stress drugs chemicals hormonal fluctuations and different endocrine pathologies that come from genetic defects or traumatic injury o Endocrine disorders arise when there is either to much or too little hormone present in the bloodstream caused by lack of receptors and problems regulating and clearing hormones The hypothalamus is an area of the brain that produces hormones that regulate thirst

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