UB PGY 412 - Final Exam Study Guide (58 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



Previewing pages 1, 2, 3, 4, 27, 28, 29, 30, 55, 56, 57, 58 of actual document.

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Final Exam Study Guide

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The last test will emphasize information about digestive and renal pathologies. The second part of the test will cover past material on cardiovascular, endocrine, respiratory, fluid and electrolyte, and neurological pathologies.


Pages:
58
Type:
Study Guide
School:
University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
Course:
Pgy 412 - Applied Physiology
Applied Physiology Documents

Unformatted text preview:

PGY 412 Final Exam Study Guide Gastrointestinal Disorders Lecture 1 Overview and Esophagus Esophageal pathology o Obstruction Inside foreign object tumor ring web Outside lung cancer enlarged lymph nodes secondary to metastasis or tuberculosis Symptoms dysphagia difficulty swallowing regurgitation o Dysfunction of esophageal muscle or its innervation failure to contract or to relax Achalasia LES Lower Esophageal Sphincter remains constricted Eventually esophageal walls become dilated and peristalsis is lost Bird s beak appearance on barium swallow Faulty parasympathetic control Failure to contract scleroderma Chagas disease destroy collagen Failure to relax diffuse esophageal spasm that mimics symptoms of angina o Diverticula outpouchings Distal obstruction leads to proximal esophagus contracting more forcefully Pulsion Diverticula esophageal wall weakens leading to an outpouching Traction Diverticula due to lymph nodes Zenker s Diverticulum just behind UES Upper Esophageal Sphincter regurgitation of undigested food pulsion type of diverticulum o Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease GERD Most common disorder of esophagus Esophagitis acid burn of lower esophagus Hiatus Hernia protrusion or herniation of the upper part of the stomach into the thorax through a tear or weakness in the diaphragm Increased gastric pressure opening LES due to decreased gastric emptying obstruction or gastric paresis Worsens when lying down or bending over Barrett s Esophagus lining of the is damaged by stomach acid and changed to a lining similar to that of the stomach o Esophageal cancer Adenocarcinoma caused by Barrett s Esophagus Squamous cell carcinoma caused by smoking and alcohol Dysphagia Upper airway obstruction o Esophageal varices Dilations of esophageal veins associated with Portal Venous Hypertension Esophageal veins are dilated due to collateral veins from Portal system Delicate bleed easily Acute bleed Undigested red Chronic bleed Digested dark coffee grounds Lecture 2 Stomach The



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