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ADSC 2010 I II Exam 2 Study Guide Lectures 11 22 Horses a Both breed and color i Appaloosa mottled skin color white sclera striped hooves ii Paint all paints are pintos but not all pintos are paint b Just a color i Palomino result of color dilution genes ii Pinto 1 Tobiano white with color spots 2 Ovaro color with jagged white spots c Draft cold bloods i Percheron most popular draft breed in America ii Belgian genetic basis for almost all draft breeds iii Clydesdale increased hitchiness feathering around hooves Pigs a Maternal breeds usually have white bodies i Yorkshire 1 Most popular maternal breed 2 Hardy prolific ii Landrace 1 Droopy ears 2 Hump on back iii Chester White 1 American composite breed iv Meishan 1 Highly prolific 2 Poor growth and poor carcass b Paternal Terminal breeds colored desirable carcass good grower heavy muscling lean less back fat i Duroc 1 Dish in the head 2 Droopy ears ii Hampshire 1 Color with white belt 2 Oldest breeds in US iii Pietran 1 Color spots with faded ring around them 2 Heavily muscled 3 Don t handle stress very well iv Berkshire 1 Growth efficient muscle lean III 2 1st known swine registry c Breed that is both a sheep and a pig i Hampshire Nutrients a Basic Nutrients i Water ii Carbohydrates iii Lipids iv Proteins v Vitamins vi Minerals b Essential vs Non essential i Essential can t be synthesized ourselves so it has to be in diet ii Non essential can synthesize ourselves iii Does this different between species digestive types 1 Poultry have different list 12 iv Essential fatty acids 1 Arachidonic linoleic linolenic v Essential amino acids 1 PVT TIM HALL Phenylalanine Valine Tryptophan Threonine Isoleucine Methionine Histadine Arginine Lysine Leucine c What nutrients provide for animals i Water for drinking to add moisture to feeds ii Carbohydrates energy iii Lipids energy source of fatty acids carrier of fat soluble vitamins iv Proteins cell tissue repair growth production passage of oxygen v Vitamins micro vision tissue maintenance blood clotting growth vi Minerals inorganic components of bone teeth macro micro d Levels of feeding i Maintenance 1 Basal metabolism normal activity 2 Rare condition for most animals except horses ii Growth 1 Adding tissue 2 Building structural units in youngstock iii Work mostly equine 1 Above and beyond maintenance iv Production non terminal 1 Variability based on product 2 While maintaining as well e Structure i Carbohydrates 1 C H O 2 Starch sugars cellulose 3 ii Lipids 1 2 3 4 IV Monosaccharides disaccharides polysaccharides C H O higher proportions of C H Esters of fatty acids glycerols Saturated no double bonds solid at room temperature Unsaturated one or more double bonds liquid at room temperature iii Proteins 1 C H O N S 2 Amino acids peptides polypeptides protein Nutrient Breakdowns a How energy is lost Gross energy Loss Fecal Digestible energy Loss Urine gas defecation Metabolizable energy Loss Net energy Production V Maintenance Heat increment Heat of fermentation Heat of metabolism TDN total digestible nutrients b Proximate analysis i Heat it up to remove moisture ii Burn to leave only organic matter iii Ash mineral iv Kjeldahl process isolates measures N 1 CP x 6 25 N v Ether extract lipids vi Van soest 1 Neutral detergent fiber cellulose hemicellulose lignin 2 Acid detergent fiber lignin cellulose 3 NDF ADF hemicellulose partially digestible vii Nitrogen free extract carbohydrates Feedstuffs a Feeds heavy in different nutrients i Grain high in protein ii Legumes high in protein most nutrient dense iii Grasses good source of Ca Vit A b Forages i Legumes grasses ii iii iv v vi 1 Cool season annuals ryegrass rye oats wheat a Ryegrass high yield b Rye lowest yield c Wheat oats high in fiber 2 Cool season perennials fescue orchard grass a Fescue high yields 3 Warm season annuals millet sorghum sorghum sudan corn a Nutrient content high but yield low b Corn least expensive 4 Warm season perennials Bermuda Bahia a Common smaller leaves with more stem more lignin b Tifton 85 bigger leaves higher fiber cellulose hemicellulose with less Hay 30 moisture 1 Square or round bales 2 Preservation through drying nutrient loss leaf shattering 3 Harvest loss not picked up or broken Baleage 45 60 moisture 1 Baled green in plastic anaerobic more nutrients 2 Preservation through fermentation lactic acid production 3 Disadvantage equipment more expensive Silage 60 70 moisture 1 Chopped into fine particles 2 Stored in silage pits or solos anaerobic 3 Preservation through fermentation 4 Harvest loss through ensiling process Corn silage has highest yields Pearson square Corn 7 5 32 15 SBM 47 VI 32 39 5 0 81 corn 39 5 7 5 7 5 39 5 0 19 SBM Ruminants vs Monogastrics a Physical differences i Monogastrics one true stomach ii Ruminants 4 compartments to stomach b Microbes vs gastric digestion i Microbes bacteria protozoa fungi 1 Amylolytic job starch digestion 2 Cellulolytic job cellulose digestion 3 Digest carbohydrates to produce volatile fatty acids a Acetic propionic butyric ii Gastric digestion uses secretions to digest 1 Gastrin gastric secretions 2 HCl denatures proteins 3 Pepsin breaks down proteins 4 Enzymes VII Enzyme What breaks down Amylase Starch disaccharide Trypsin Proteins polypeptides peptides Chymotrypsin Peptides amino acids peptides Lipase Lipids fatty acids Pepsin Proteins amino acids c Advantages of ruminant i Increase potential to digest feed ii Increased feeding value with a lot of feeds iii Essential nutrients can be manufactured vitamins amino acids fatty acids iv Deactivate some toxic things d Disadvantages of ruminant i Destroy essential nutrients b c microbes use them ii Fermentation uses energy lost as heat gas e Horse differences i Hindgut fermenter ferment in cecum which comes after small intestine f Different compartments of ruminant their function purpose i Rumen 20 of weight 1 Break down highly fibrous foods 2 Fermentation vat 3 Papillae increase SA for absorption 4 Digest cellulose effectively ii Omasum 1 Many plies folds for water electrolyte VFA absorption 2 Grinding action to break down particles even more iii Reticulum 1 Pacemaker for rumen aid in contractions 2 Hardware disease due to its location iv Abomasum 1 Similar to monogastrics true stomach 2 Rugae gives ability to extend and fill abomasum g NRC National Research Council i Sets the standard for how we feed our livestock species Reproduction a Female Anatomy i Oviduct 1 Transport ova sperm 2 Site of fertilization ii Ovary 1


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UGA ADSC 2010 - Exam 2 Study Guide

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