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NAU ESE 625 - Study Notes

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60• Use highly visual materials (e.g., many figures, pictures, diagrams) in reading assignments. • Allow the student to use a tape recorderCurriculum adaptions in reading and writing:• Shorten assignments based on mastery of key concepts.• Shorten spelling tests based on mastering most functional words.• Substitute clay models, posters, cartoons, panoramas, puppet shows, models, dioramas, plays, for written assignments.• Change from percentage to mastery grading.• Decrease all forms of competitive marking and grading.• Allow students to work in pairs who have complementary learning strengths so both feel capable in some areas of learning.• Specify, list and make a check up document stating exactly what the student will need to learn to pass, and do it it at the beginning of the grading period and then make weekly references to it, with the student having the progress chart available for personal motivation.• Modify expectations so student can succeed.• Have conferences to help student recognize the value of concepts and help choose ways to demonstrate learning.• Use both printed and oral directions on assignments.• Give directions in small chunks that student can remember and accomplish successfully.• Have student repeat directions to determine that communications are clear.• Show a model or provide rubrics for the finished product.• Provide support as soon as the student shows frustration or flagging interest.• Check progress frequently in the first few minutes of the assignment.• Break large assignments in to smaller chunks and help student succeed at each juncture.61Literacy ScreeningEarly indicators May talk later than most children.? May have difficulty pronouncing words i.e., "alluniumum, "busgetti" for "spaghetti", "mawn lower" for "lawn mower".? May be slow to add new vocabulary words.? May be unable to recall the right word.? May have difficulty with rhyming.? May have trouble learning numbers, alphabet, days of the week, colors, shapes, write or spell own name.? May be unable to follow multi- step directions or routines.? Fine motor skills may develop more slowly than peers'.? May have difficulty telling and/or retelling a story in the correct sequence.? Often has difficulty separating sounds in words? Gets confused or unfocused when blending sounds to make words.Primary skills? May be slow to learn the connection between letters and sounds.? Has difficulty decoding single words (reading single words in isolation).? Has difficulty spelling phonetically.? Makes consistent reading and spelling errors such as: • Letter reversals - "d" for "b" as in: "dog" for "bog" • Word reversals - "tip" for "pit" • Inversions - "m" for "w," "u" for "n"• Transpositions - "felt" for "left" • Substitutions - "house" for "home"? May confuse small words - "at" for "to," "said" for "and," "does" for "goes."? Relies on guessing and context.? May have difficulty learning new vocabulary, names for objects.? May transpose number sequences or confuse arithmetic signs (? - x / =).? May have trouble recalling facts.? May be slow to learn new skills; relies heavily on memorizing (often very limited, already) without understanding.? May have difficulty planning, organizing, managing time, materials and tasks.? Often uses an awkward pencil grip - fist, thumb hooked over fingers, etc.? May have poor "fine motor" coordination; i.e.Working so hard and still trying -- grades four and above ? Is usually reading below grade level often with rudimentary skills.? May reverse letter sequences - "soiled" for "solid," "left" for "felt."? May be slow to discern and to learn prefixes, suffixes, root words, and other reading and spelling strategies.? May have difficulty spelling; spells same word differently on the same page.? May avoid reading aloud.? May have trouble with word problems. ? May write with difficulty with illegible handwriting; awkward pencil grip, fist-like or tight.? May avoid writing.? May have difficulty with written composition.? May have slow or poor recall of facts.? May have difficulty with comprehension.? May have trouble with (does not catch on to) idioms, jokes, proverbs.62Reading ReportStudent Name ____________________ Date ____________Teacher _______________________Reading AbilitiesInitial success 1st quarter 2nd quarter 3rd quarterFinaleReading speedReading accuracySpecific sounds are associated with letters -Alphabet, blends, vowel combinationsInitiates reading tasks - starts work on own,uses references, internet searches, pleasureInitiates writing tasks - notes, takes notes, Slow to start, minutes involvedSpeed of work - laborious, plodding, quick, focused on accuracy, dashes throughEye movements across the pageFocus attention on the words - minutes able to do this, level of intensity - lost in readingMisreads information.Builds ideas and images based on passage -with help, automatically, deep, rich, creativeUnderstands words and placement in text.Captures meaning from the passageStores ideas in memory - during session, recalls, during day, recalls next dayCan put ideas gleaned into writingSummarizes main ideas, sub plotsSpelling is consistent and phoneticStudent knows when word may not be rightMnemonic devises are used for some wordsLittle attention to details or lost in detailsLittle knowledge from previous readingAnswers open-ended questions on testsForeign words present difficultiesOrganizing and managing difficultiesLimited English vocabularyRetains previously covered material63These building blocks are cognitive foundational skills for reading.Focus attentionRecognize sounds associated with lettersVocabulary building with picture and mind associationsMemory workCapture meaning from readingRespond to questions about material -- get it in and get it back out!Acquiring and practicing for expertiseReading Associated SkillsThese are ways these reading associated skills affect the reading experience.Read very slowly with many inaccuraciesSlow to startSlow goingAvoids readingNot aware that specific sounds are associated with letters; or some sounds are missing.Can't focus attention on the printed marks and /or control eye movements across the page.Not understanding words or placement in textNot capturing meaning from the passageMisreads informationStores few ideas in memoryPoor memory skills and practicesLittle attention to detailMain thoughts lost in all the detailsCan't answer


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