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Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 7 The Environmental Planning and Management of Tourism The Role of Government o Concern for the natural environment is only likely to happen after national security and economic development have been achieved o The typical government prioritization is as follows Priority 1 National Security Priority 2 redistribution of wealth and regional development Priority 3 Environmental concerns o The developing word s view is that developed nations have the luxury of being able to be concerned over the environment because they have largely fulfilled many of their national goals o The Third World says you re telling us not to do what you did to achieve your high stand of living o What are you going to do for us o The ability of multinational investors to transfer capital at the international level means that many governments are reluctant to place any obstacles such as environmental regulation o Regulation could prevent future tourism development projects o The environment could be viewed as a hindrance to development o Debt re payments to western banks greatly influence the ability of many of these countries to allocate resources for environmental protection o If conservation of natural resources is low on their priority list it may be one of the first areas to be cut back in government expenditures o Typical measures that governments may consider include the following 1 The establishment of protected areas through legislation 2 The implementation of land use planning such as zoning 3 Mandatory use of environmental impact analysis 4 Encourage coordination between government agencies o The World Tourism Organization produced several classifications of protected areas The most restrictive being at the top 1 Strict Nature Reserve to maintain the ecological balance and for scientific studies 2 National Parks for educational scientific and recreational 3 Natural Landmarks to protect and preserve significant 4 Wildlife Sanctuary to protect significant species 5 Protected Landscapes to maintain nationally significant use natural features landscapes 6 Resource Reserve to protect the resources of the area Protected Areas 7 Naturally Biotic Area Anthropological Reserve to allow for societies that are living in harmony with the environment to continue 8 Multiple use Management Area Managed Resources for the sustained production of a mix of water timber wildlife pasture and outdoor recreation o One of the most common protected areas is the National Park They are areas for nature conservation and recreation By the end of the 19th century national parks had been established in other countries NOTE The first national park in the world was Yosemite in 1872 o The biggest threat today to some national parks is tourism o Over popularity is in many cases one of the greatest hidden dangers to the natural environment o In developing countries the establishment of national parks tends to be associated with the conservation of wildlife NOTE Read box 7 3 page 180 costs and benefits of national parks Land Use Planning Methods o Zoning A land management strategy It can provide recognition of the resources that exist in the area It can identify where tourism can and cannot take place o Zoning an are involves two key stages 1 The descriptive stage which involves identifying important recreational opportunities 2 The allocation stage which involves deciding what values and opportunities should be made in protected areas o The benefits of zoning in terms of the conservation of natural resources can be summarized as 1 Defining the types of tourism suitable to an area and o Assisting the management of visitor impact to assure they do not ecosystem exceed acceptable levels o Increasing awareness of tourism stakeholders of the values of the ecosystem and natural resources Carrying Capacity o A technique that has been commonly used on tourism planning o The World Tourism Organization defines carrying capacity as Fundamental to environmental protection and sustainable development It refers to maximum use of any site without negative effects to its resources reducing visitor satisfaction or Limits of Acceptable Change exerting adverse impact upon society economy and culture of the area o There are at least four types of carrying capacity page 188 1 Economic dependency of the economy on tourism 2 Psychological level of visitor satisfaction 3 Environmental the impact of tourism on the environment 4 Social the reaction of the local community to tourism o Limits of acceptable change LAC does not attempt to quantify numbers of tourists that can be accommodated in an area o The system is reliant upon identifying the desired social and environmental conditions in an area o The mechanics of the LAC system involves a set of indicators o The indicators are a mix od scientific and social measures o For example the levels of water air and noise pollution could be monitored the percentage of workforce employed in the tourist sector assessed crime rates and driving accidents associated with tourism and levels of tourism satisfaction evaluated o Measurement cannot be purely scientific but it relies on input from citizens o LAC accepts that some change is inevitable and provides a framework to monitor that change Environmental Impact Analysis o Environmental Impact Assessment EIS is concerned with assessing the predicted effects of development o EIS provides decision makers with information on the likely consequences of their decision o The Environmental Impact Analysis is used as a planning instrument o There is no structure to the components of an EIA o They typically assess future levels of noise pollution visual impact land use and landscape changes associated with developments o Most EIA s involve 5 stages 1 Identification of the impact 2 Its measurement 3 Interpretation of the significance of the impact 4 Displaying the results of assessments 5 Development of appropriate monitoring schemes Pg 192 o The types of tourism that would be subject to environmental impact assessment include hotels visitor attractions marinas airports roads waste treatment and energy plants o Major problem with EIA s is its cost o EIA s require a variety of specialists like geologists hydrologists geographers environmentalists scientists sociologists and anthropologists o Another problem is predicting the timing of the impact Will they occur during construction operation and possible closure The role of Private Sector o Commitment of

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FSU HFT 3700 - Exam Three Guide

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