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How do developing countries allocate resources?• Debt repayments to western banks greatly influences the ability of many of these countries to allocate resources for environmental protection• If conservation of natural resources is low on their priority list it may be one of thefirst areas to be cut back in government expendituresWhat is the typical government prioritization related to regional development for the environment?1. National security2. Redistribution of wealth and regional development3. Environmental concernsWhat do governments do to protect the environment?• Concern for the natural environment is only likely to happen after national security and economical development have been achieved. • Many governments are reluctant to place an obstacle such as environmental regulation• Regulation could prevent future development projects• Measures governments may consider:o The establishment of protected areas through legislationo The implementation of land use planning such a zoningo Mandatory use of environmental impact analysiso Encourage coordination between government agenciesDifferent land use methods? What is land use about?• Zoningo A land management strategy o Can provide recognition of the resources that exists in the areao Can identify where tourism can and cant take placeZoning Benefits• Defining the types of tourism suitable to an area ecosystem• Descriptive- involved identifying important recreational opportunities (river, lakes, horseback riding etc. new area to be developed)• Allocation- involves deciding what values and opportunities should be made where in protected areas. (How are we going to distribute better)What is the meaning of caring capacity? What is it?• Four difference types of carrying capacityi. Economic: dependency of the economy on tourismii. Psychological: levels of visitor satisfaction iii. Environmental: impact of tourism on the environmentiv. Social: the reaction of the local community to tourismWhat is the developing world's view regarding actions taken by developed countries on their plans to develop?• They view that developed nations have the luxury of being able to be concerned over the environment because they have largely fulfilled many of their national goals• They say that developed countries are telling them not to do what the developed world did to achieve their high standard of livingWhat are the classifications of protected areas, according to the WTO?• Strict nature reserve- scientific studies• National Parks- educational, scientific, and recreational use• Natural Landmarks- protect/ preserve natural features• Wildlife Sanctuary- protect significant species• Protect Landscapes- to maintain nationally significant landscapes• Resources Reserve- To protect the resources of the area• Naturally Biotic Area/ Anthro Reserve- allow societies that are living in harmony (native Americans) • Multiple use management area/ resources- sustained production of a mix of water,timber, wildlife, pasture and outdoor recreationNational parks; when were they created, what is the biggest threat?Tourism; Yellow Stone 1872; They are areas for nature conservation and recreation-By the end of 19th century, national parks had been established in other countries-We use it for recreationExplain what is carrying capacity?-Maximum/limit use of any site without negative effects to its resources• There are four difference types of carrying capacityi. Economic: dependency of the economy on tourismii. Psychological: levels of visitor satisfaction iii. Environmental: impact of tourism on the environmentiv. Social: the reaction of the local community to tourismWhat is the role of the private sector, in the success of future development?• Commitment of the private sector to environmental protection is essential to the success of future development• There are advantages to be gained:o Cost savings: preservation of main business assets (natural, cultural, environmental)What is environmental auditing?• Provides the basis for such business practice and is consistent with the view of management as a controlled public process based on continuous monitoring of impacts and change, the development of knowledge and the feeding back of these into decision making by formalized process. • It helps passing environmental legislation, and enforcement of punitive measures against tourism firms.• Helps companies reduce their costs of operations and increase profits• Companies trying to be philanthropic could use it to adopt as many measures that they can afford.What is the objective of environmental code of conduct?• The aim of codes of conduct is to influence attitudes and modify behavior• Key points:o Sustainable use of resources o Reduction of environmental impactso Showing sensitivity for wildlife and cultureo Pursue responsible marketing. • Problems related to codes of conduct:o Monitoring and evaluating codeso Conflict between codes as a form of marketing and codesWhat is the meaning of the limits of acceptable change?-How much are we willing to tolerateWhat is the difference between environment assessment/ and environment impact analysis?• Environmental impact assessment (EIS): predicts the future. Concerned with assessing the predicted effects of development. Provides decision makers with information on the likely consequences of their decision. • Environmental Impact Analysis (EIA): used as a planning instrument. There is not structure to the components of an EIA. They typically assess future levels of noise pollution, visual impact, air quality, hydrological impact, land use and landscape changes associated with a development.Describe the 5 stages of the impact analysisi. Identification of the impactii. Its measurementiii. Interpretation of the significance of the impactiv. Displaying the results of the assessmentsv. Development of appropriate monitoring schemes.Which are the types of tourism, which are subject to environmental impact assessment? Which specialists are required?• Hotels, visitor attractions, marinas, airports, roads, waste treatment and energy plants-Specialists include: Sociologists, geologists, hydrologists, geographers, scientists, anthropologistswhat was the warmest decade in history?• 1990 was the warmest decade• 11 of the last 12 years rank around the warmest since 1850 (1995-2006)• 1850: marks the beginning of meteorological recordsWhat is the meaning of climate change?-Change

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FSU HFT 3700 - Notes

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