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FSU AMH 3351 - Midterm Study Guide

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AMH3351 Midterm Study GuideJohn Adams was the first vice president of the United States (1789-1797) and the second president of the United States (1797-1801). He was a strong leader in the Federalist Party and a large advocate for a strong, centralized government. During his time as president, he was most notable for his undertaking in the Quasi War withFrance and the Alien and Sedition Acts. Before leaving his presidency, he appointed several Federalists judges also know as the “midnight appointments” to counteract the next president, Thomas Jefferson, a Democratic-Republican. Samuel Adams was the leader of the Sons of Liberty, an organization that wanted toprotect the rights of the colonists. He suggested the formation of the Committees of Correspondence. He provoked the Boston Tea Party and fought for colonial rights throughout his city, Boston, MA and in New England.Albany Congress consisted of seven of the thirteen colonies that met to discuss better relations with the Native Americans and common defense measures against the French. They met in 1754 with a mission of pursuing a treaty with the Mohawks.This was the first time that colonial representatives met to discuss some manner in a formal union.Ethan Allen is best known for the capture of Fort Ticonderoga early in the American Revolution.American Revolution was the political upheaval in which the thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free from the British Empire ruling. From this war, the American colonies became the United States of America. The United States was able to shape the exact government by which they wanted to be ruled by. Annapolis Convention was in September 1786 where delegates from five states met to discuss the issue of interstate commerce. Discussions of weakness in the federal government led them to suggest to Congress to amend the Articles of Confederation.Anti-Federalist were those who did not support the ratification of the Constitution and called for a more decentralized form of government. They were led by Patrick Henry of Virginia and believed that the strong government could evolve into a monarchy.Appalachian Mountains were the original western boundary line of the British colonies. The Proclamation of 1763 forbade the colonist from settling west of the mountains in hopes of stabilizing relations with the Native Americans as well as reducing costs of colonial defense. Most Native Americans sided with the French dueto the Seven Years War. The colonists were furious with King George III for not allowing western settlement because they had received or purchased land grants forservices during the war.Benedict Arnold was a general during the American Revolution who originally fought for the Continental Army. He is best known for his actions at Fort Ticonderoga in 1775 and his pivotal actions at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777.Articles of Confederation was adopted in 1777 during the American Revolution. This new form of government established a distinct limited central government of the United States in hopes of creating a government nothing like England’s. The individual states had most power. It did not allow enough federal power to manage the federal budget or establish a national military. Bank of the United States was chartered in 1791 under the Washington Administration. The Democratic-Republicans were strong advocates for the Bank. It was a controversial part of Alexander Hamilton’s Federalist economic program. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison strongly opposed this Bank of the United States because they felt it was unconstitutional and mainly benefitted merchants and investors. Battle of Saratoga was fought during September and October of 1777. This was ultimately the turning point in the American Revolution for the Continental Army. France and Spain both formally entered the war with the colonists creating it into a global conflict.Battle of Bunker Hill took place in June 1775 during the siege of Boston in the American Revolution. This was the first battle of the war. This battle led to Washington taking command of the Continental Army and the need to establish a chain of command.Battle of Quebec was fought in late December 1775 between the Continental Army and British troops. This battle was the first major defeat of the war for the colonists.Boston Massacre occurred in March 1770 when a crowd of men and boys gathered from a building alarm going off. The colonists began protesting against British rule around a small squad of British soldiers. A gun was discharged and caused firearms to go off killing five people. Boston Tea Party was in December 1773 that protested the Tea Act, which Britain used the profits of selling tea to pay the salaries of the royal governors. Samuel Adams gathered Boston residents to dress as Mohawk Indians. They boarded the ships and dumped cargo into the harbor. This event led to the Coercive Acts that England would later press on the colonies. Cajuns were Canadians who moved to the Louisiana Territory after the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1763, ending the French and Indian War. These people were forced out of Canada and moved West by the British.Charles II (1660-1685) was one of the Kings of England who was a Catholic. Tensions between Protestantism and Catholicism rose after Queen Elizabeth I, a Protestant, died. Charles I, the next ruler of England, was a Catholic. He flaunted his religious beliefs in hopes that Catholicism would be restored in his country. He was eventually overthrown and beheaded. His death revealed the high tensions of religion in England and how the throne needed to be restored. George Clinton was the first governor of New York and vice president of the United States under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison from (1805-1812). He was a Democratic-Republican and an advocate for individual state powers.Coercive Acts were established by England after the Boston Massacre in 1774. England hoped that they could get Boston under control and isolate them. The Boston Port Bill closed the Boston Harbor until the colonists paid back the East India Trade Company for their significant damages from the Boston Tea Party. The Massachusetts Government Act took away their colony’s charter and were then put directly under the British crown. The Quartering Act applied to all colonists and they must house British soldiers. The Administration of Justice Act was set to assure that trials were more conduction to the Crown than the


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