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1) Economic Base Concept- Economic base concept – 2 types of economic activities existo Those that are necessary for urban growtho Those that exist primarily to supplement those necessary functions- Non basic economic functions cater to specific regions where as basic economic functions are widespread.o For example: Basic economic functions(international trade, exporting, farming formore than your own city) Non basic economic function (city infrastructure funded by city, farming for only locals, babysitting)- 3 sectors of economyo Primary – retrieval of raw material (mining, fishing, farming)o Secondary – manufacturing with primary goods (building, retail stores, grocery store)o Tertiary – service and trade sector, no new product is produced. (advising, babysitting, trade, import, export)2) Industrial Era- The industrial era shaped cities in Europe and USAo Populations in cities grew as people migrated from rural to urban areas in order tofind worko Cities started to appear close to water because shipping was the number one way of transporting goods for trade both nationally and internationally.o Seaside towns grew thanks to railways bringing in materials and supplies towns couldn’t provide themselves witho Cities were built where there were natural resources such as coalPrimary Secondary TertiaryTallahassee, FL Lumber ConcreteBoatsInsecticidesEducationGovernment ServicesBerkeley, CA Mining Steel Industry EducationMedical researchDetroit, MI Cars(GM, Ford, Chrysler)Youngstown, OH CoalIronNatural GasSteelCars(Studebaker)Cleveland, OH ManufacturingPolymersElectric InstrumentsFabricated MetalsCiudad Guayana, Venezuelao City structure was very compact because they were designed for people to be ableto walk anywhere they needed This lead to overcrowding Eventually led to public health issues which brought around public health laws- Public Health Issueso Overcrowding led to poor hygene, unclean water, and lack of wasteand sewage disposalo Streams were used for dumping waste and drinking water This was before the discovery that germs lead to diseaseo These events led to public health legislation- Burgess theoretical modelo Father of concentric modelo Growth of a city occurs through a radial expansion from the center so as to form aseries of concentric rings.o 5 zones1. Central Business Distric (CBD) (Retail/Wholesale/Offices)2. Zone of transition (stagnation, social deteriation)3. Factory workers homes4. Residential units (single family homes, apartments, etc)5. Commuter zone (suburbs, satellite communities)o Invasion and succession As a city grows there is a special redistribution of population groups by where they live and what occupation they haveo Poverty, delinquency rates, and percentages of foreigners decline as you move farther away from the center of the city- Hoyt theoretical modelo Sector model Concluded that general patterns of housing values applied to all cities and that those patterns appear as sectors not ringso 5 zones1. CBD2. Wholesale and light manufacturing3. Low class residential sector4. Mid class residential sector5. High class residential sector- Cities grow overtime in the direction of the expanding high-rent residential sector.3) Public and Private actions that shaped economic growth and housing development in USA- Homestead Act of 1862o Made 1.5 million acres f land west of Mississippi River available to any citizen 21years or older who had not taken up arms against the Union.o Had to claim land and stay for 5 yearso Opportunity for many Americans to gain wealth and social status- First Pacific Railway Act 1862o Acts by congress to construct transcontinental railwayso Went along with Homestead Act to try and encourage people to develop the west by promising a way to travel back in forth eventually.o Lead to increase in western population- Early industrial capitalism 1840-1870o Marked transformation from economy based in trade to one that produced raw materials and manufactured products of their own.- These policies greatly increased immigration to American cities from European countriesthus increasing the urbanization of the USA.- Public housing in the Great Depression stimulated the economy through massive construction contracts that supplied jobs and housingo Also improved housing quality and thus quality of life- TVA – Tennessee Valley Authorityo 28,000 jobs were created by the TVA b the 1940so Provided electricity to rural regions in south eastern USA and thus started turning these rural areas in to urban cities.o Controlled flooding by creating man-made lakes to hold run off and rain water- Highway system in 1956o Introduced trucking as a railway competitoro Put a lot of people in suburbs outside of the city because they now had an easy way in and out of the city via automobile.- Housing Act of 1949o Decent home and suitable living environment for every Americano 810,000 public housing units to be built over 6 yearso Intended to focus on removal of slums and replacing them with affordable housing. In fact it destroyed the sense of community that was established in the slums, or ethnic neighborhoods, and disrupted cultural enclaves.o Ended up taking 23 years but its goal was accomplished in creating affordable housing.4) Sustainability- How does sustainability occur?o Sustainability occurs when the 3Es agree or work together. In other words when the concerns of all 3 Es are met.- 3Eso Environment/Ecology Renewable resources are placed by naturl processes to conserve them Energy based on renewable resources- Solar, wind, watero Economy Creating and maintain trade Controlling growth Provide jobs and job securityo Equity Strong social capital Adequate housing for all Reliable transportation for all Environmental justice- Smart growth citieso High quality of life without use of natural resources ie. Cities with pedestrian walkways instead of roads to reduce fuel usage- New Urbanismo Method of achieving sustainable growtho Many different housing income levels in compact areaso Green Schools (self-sustaining buildings, and teaching new urban architecture)o Pedestrian walkways throughout citieso Examples include Celebration FL, Seaside FL, Curitiba Brazil- Curitiba Brazilo One of first cities to use new urbanism in designing city layout.o Removed many blocks or road ways and turned them into pedestrian walkwayso Although many shop keepers and motorists were opposed to this at first they ended up

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FSU URS 1006 - Economic Base Concept

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