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1 Economic Base Concept Economic base concept 2 types of economic activities exist o Those that are necessary for urban growth o Those that exist primarily to supplement those necessary functions Non basic economic functions cater to specific regions where as basic economic functions are widespread o For example Basic economic functions international trade exporting farming for more than your own city Non basic economic function city infrastructure funded by city farming for only locals babysitting 3 sectors of economy o Primary retrieval of raw material mining fishing farming o Secondary manufacturing with primary goods building retail stores grocery o Tertiary service and trade sector no new product is produced advising 2 store babysitting trade import export Tallahassee FL Primary Lumber Berkeley CA Mining Detroit MI Youngstown OH Coal Iron Natural Gas Cleveland OH Ciudad Guayana Venezuela Industrial Era Secondary Concrete Boats Insecticides Steel Industry Cars GM Ford Chrysler Steel Cars Studebaker Manufacturing Polymers Electric Instruments Fabricated Metals Tertiary Education Government Services Education Medical research The industrial era shaped cities in Europe and USA o Populations in cities grew as people migrated from rural to urban areas in order to find work o Cities started to appear close to water because shipping was the number one way of transporting goods for trade both nationally and internationally o Seaside towns grew thanks to railways bringing in materials and supplies towns couldn t provide themselves with o Cities were built where there were natural resources such as coal o City structure was very compact because they were designed for people to be able to walk anywhere they needed This lead to overcrowding Eventually led to public health issues which brought around public health laws Public Health Issues disposal o Overcrowding led to poor hygene unclean water and lack of wasteand sewage o Streams were used for dumping waste and drinking water This was before the discovery that germs lead to disease o These events led to public health legislation Burgess theoretical model o Father of concentric model o Growth of a city occurs through a radial expansion from the center so as to form a series of concentric rings o 5 zones 1 Central Business Distric CBD Retail Wholesale Offices 2 Zone of transition stagnation social deteriation 3 Factory workers homes 4 Residential units single family homes apartments etc 5 Commuter zone suburbs satellite communities o Invasion and succession As a city grows there is a special redistribution of population groups by where they live and what occupation they have o Poverty delinquency rates and percentages of foreigners decline as you move farther away from the center of the city Hoyt theoretical model o Sector model Concluded that general patterns of housing values applied to all cities and that those patterns appear as sectors not rings o 5 zones 1 CBD 2 Wholesale and light manufacturing 3 Low class residential sector 4 Mid class residential sector 5 High class residential sector Cities grow overtime in the direction of the expanding high rent residential sector 3 Public and Private actions that shaped economic growth and housing development in USA Homestead Act of 1862 o Made 1 5 million acres f land west of Mississippi River available to any citizen 21 years or older who had not taken up arms against the Union o Had to claim land and stay for 5 years o Opportunity for many Americans to gain wealth and social status First Pacific Railway Act 1862 o Acts by congress to construct transcontinental railways o Went along with Homestead Act to try and encourage people to develop the west by promising a way to travel back in forth eventually o Lead to increase in western population Early industrial capitalism 1840 1870 o Marked transformation from economy based in trade to one that produced raw materials and manufactured products of their own These policies greatly increased immigration to American cities from European countries thus increasing the urbanization of the USA Public housing in the Great Depression stimulated the economy through massive construction contracts that supplied jobs and housing o Also improved housing quality and thus quality of life TVA Tennessee Valley Authority o 28 000 jobs were created by the TVA b the 1940s o Provided electricity to rural regions in south eastern USA and thus started turning these rural areas in to urban cities o Controlled flooding by creating man made lakes to hold run off and rain water Highway system in 1956 o Introduced trucking as a railway competitor o Put a lot of people in suburbs outside of the city because they now had an easy way in and out of the city via automobile Housing Act of 1949 o Decent home and suitable living environment for every American o 810 000 public housing units to be built over 6 years o Intended to focus on removal of slums and replacing them with affordable housing In fact it destroyed the sense of community that was established in the slums or ethnic neighborhoods and disrupted cultural enclaves o Ended up taking 23 years but its goal was accomplished in creating affordable o Sustainability occurs when the 3Es agree or work together In other words when Renewable resources are placed by naturl processes to conserve them Energy based on renewable resources housing 4 Sustainability How does sustainability occur the concerns of all 3 Es are met 3Es o Environment Ecology Solar wind water o Economy Creating and maintain trade Controlling growth Provide jobs and job security o Equity Strong social capital Adequate housing for all Reliable transportation for all Environmental justice Smart growth cities New Urbanism o High quality of life without use of natural resources ie Cities with pedestrian walkways instead of roads to reduce fuel usage Curitiba Brazil o Method of achieving sustainable growth o Many different housing income levels in compact areas o Green Schools self sustaining buildings and teaching new urban architecture o Pedestrian walkways throughout cities o Examples include Celebration FL Seaside FL Curitiba Brazil o One of first cities to use new urbanism in designing city layout o Removed many blocks or road ways and turned them into pedestrian walkways o Although many shop keepers and motorists were opposed to this at first they ended up liking it Gave the city cleaner air and less crowded roadways o Curitiba Bus system was first of its

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FSU URS 1006 - Economic Base Concept

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