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Globalization· Globalization is the international interaction and integration among people, companies and governments· European trade via ships formed colonial empireso Transatlantic trade routes- movement of primary goods and slaves between Europe, Africa, North America· Globalization is a history of time and space compression (invention of telegraph, telephone, steam engine to satellites, internet, etc)· Placelessness- loosing sense of place and our connection to local environment (enhanced through technology; McDonalidization, Asianization, sushi, power rangers))· K economics- economies based in brain power and technology· IMF- international monetary fund (structural adjustment- use of world power and World Bank to give loans to developing nations with low interest rates if they attempt to reach certain conditions)· Rio (part of city is banking and holds the stock market while other side has pavelas or slums), Honk Kong (Bank here that is westernized but also shows cultural history as bamboo), Mumbai, Singapore (built of off technology and educating the people; key location; standard of living; expanding with more cities to handle population) Economic base concept· What work is done in a certain city and the guide that influences what work is doneo Ex- Detroit/Cleveland=manufacture; Berkley=education/management· Primary sector= Main economic base (can be agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining, etc)· Secondary sector= Manufacturing finished goods (automobiles, construction, energy utilities; kind of like the factory workers in a city)· Tertiary sector= service economy (restaurants, transportation, tourism, insurance, law, healthcare, etc) Industrial development· People moved into the cities for work but soon this turned into huge issues among public health. We then experienced a departure of the wealthy from the city to the suburb to get away from public health issues.· Urbanization was impacted by public/private policy and federal legislationo Highway system, mortgage insurance (Fannie mea allowed for home ownership), movement out west (homestead act), white flight, urban renewal)o Suburbanization à sustainability (balance of equity, economy, and equality) à New Urbanism· Urban Renewal- the redevelopment of areas within a large city; usually through the demolition of slumso Urban renewal was during white flight, redlining, segregation, and other social/economic issues that created urban blight in the cityo The intent was to fix up inner cities but it ended up destroying communities and cultural enclaves while also displacing peopleo Bad ex- Pruitt Igoe (in St. Louis) had 400 thousand whites leaving for suburbs and a loss of 11 thousand manufacturing jobs. They built this facility to facilitate the poor community but neglected to create blue-collar jobs for these people while creating white-collar jobs they couldn’t fill.o Good ex- Urban Renewal in London at Canary Warf. They used property lead development (use of public funds to stimulate private development) that brought in high tech companies. Sustainability· Providing development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs· The three E’s- Equity, Economy and Ecologyo Ex- Green Buildings such as Region 8 in Denver (grass roof); Curitiba Brazil (parks, green spaces, great transportation, recycle programs)o Bad EX- Harlem, NY and the sewage plant in poor neighborhood; Mexico City is shrinking, smoggy, no water, overpopulatedo In New York they wanted to build highways all over the city, which would have destroyed neighborhoods. The people stopped them· Smart growth- building urban, suburban and rural communities w/ housing and transportation choices near jobs, shop and schools. This approach supports local economies and protect the environment· New Urbanism- neighborhood design that promotes walk ability and a range of different houses and stores of all economic levels Colonization· In South Africao Strictly commodity trading before international trade. When international trade European countries created shipping points and took natural resources that wasn’t being invested back into Africa. Most centered on coast and not in inner Africa.· In Latin Americao Inner regional market/ tradeo Eventually turned to exports and rapid industrialization in 1960so Industrial complexes, natural gas/oil refinerieso Foreign investmento 80s/90s global economic downturn= debt/ financial difficulty Housing· Housing informality- occupation of public, communal and private land· Slum- a slum household is defined as a group of individuals living under the same roof in an urban area who lack one or more of the followingo Durable housing, sufficient living space, access to safe water, security of tenure· Housing in Africa is exemplified by the apartheid and the poor and forced to live outside of the city, but close enough for day labor.· In Brazil the pavellas are right in town and are crime ridden. Lots of informal housing and lack of water, sanitation, electricity, etc.· Solutions would be building subsidized housing, eliminate informal housing, eliminate slums and shacks Additional· Concentric zone- during industrial cities where the rich moved out of the city due to a better life (Fannie mae, better sanitation)o Process of invasion and succession (circle looking graph)o Opposite in Latin American and Africa· Sector Model- cities form along transportation routes; concentrated types of development radiating outward on transportation routes· Multiple Nuclei model- segregation of uses· Islamic City Model- Transect represents changes; model represents culture, passage of time, mobility, globalizationo Ex- Transpiration route from walking roads to paved toads to airports/highwayso Ex- Commercial from markets to McDonald· Trade liberalization-free trade system that allows traders to act or transact without interference of the government (allows globalization)· Hyperurbanization- World War II· W. Germany (1970) had Urban Renewal with a property led development that looked at fixing up old housing pre dating WWII.· England Thatcher era (property led development at Canary Warf)· E. Berlin (communist) W. Berlin (market

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FSU URS 1006 - Globalization

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