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Final Exam Study Guide World Cities Taken Directly from her study guide with more added 1 Economic Base Concept An economic base is where two types of activities or functions exist those that are necessary for urban growth and those that exist to help those functions Growth comes from the city s economic base where the composition of the workforce is Primary sectors of the economy include agriculture fishing forestry and mining Secondary sectors include This includes the industrial sector with manufacturing that uses the resources accumulated from the primary Examples of Economic Bases in US cities Economic Base of Detroit The city has become more of burden as the cost for proper infrastructure in the city increased with individuals moving out Blue collar Economic Base of Berkeley White collar jobs more than half of the population are in professional or management jobs Education and health are the two largest industries 2 Cities in Europe and the United States grew at a rapid pace during the Industrial Era You should be able to identify how the industrial era shaped cities What was its impact on public health The Industrial Era led to an increase of infrastructure throughout cities in Europe and the United States One reason being that the lack of sanitation led to poor workers for manufacturers and the need for health tied into the need for productivity As infrastructure for public health increased by putting in sewage and garbage pick up the quality of life increased Chadwick began the sanitation movement with the Public Health Act of 1848 he was one of the fathers of public health reform in Great Britain His exposure of the conditions particularly of the labouring class led to a reform that created better public health Issues included hard labor unsafe bad hygiene cholera it was super dense later on you get public transportation so they did not have to live so close together 3 In the United States urbanization was impacted by public and private policy as well as federal legislation Be able to identify private and federal actions that encouraged and shaped economic growth and housing growth There were many programs that led to the housing market growing For example the FHA Federal Housing Act in 1935 began giving mortgage insurance It insured banks that the federal government would cover the bank when mortgaging a house Fannie Mae 1938 bought mortgages from banks funding the mortgage market Freddie Mac 1970 reduced risks and increased opportunity for homeownership only for homes not apts Income Tax Incentives Allowed for homeowners to write off their mortgage Freddie Mac Fannie Mae and income tax incentives allowed for the beginning of the outward living expansion from the center of the city to the suburbs suburbanization The Beltway Bypass created ways to get around cities leading to housing growth and more economic growth This was coupled with the growth of the interstate highway system which allowed for accessibility and more economic growth Individuals working in the city were able to move outward from the center and commute Helped urban sprawls and suburbanization These federal and private actions led to white flight usually middle to higher class whites leaving the city and moving into suburbs When they left there was no one to finance the inner city Housing Act of 1949 a decent home and suitable living for all acted as a foundation for urban renewal good intentions not as good of outcomes Pruitt Igoe Example Bad Urban Renewal example High concentration of poor with poor infrastructure Post war St Louis has issues with white flight They neglected to create blue collar jobs and more people in the city were poor with low skills and the white collar workers moved out to the suburbs Redlining private activity by banks that caused more people to have to stay in the inner cities helped bring about white flight Restricted Covenants Banks and mortgage companies didn t allow white homeowners to sell their homes to African Americans can do whatever you want to yo house but sell to them New York City Robert moses wanted NYC to be an Automobile city with highways to go through slum cities The issue is that these areas were cultural enclaves that the highways would disrupt Jane Jacobs activist against robert moses stopped his highway being built in her small city 4 Sustainability How does sustainability occur What are the three Es Be able to identify urban sustainability or lack of sustainability Sustainability is meeting present day needs without compromising the needs of the future It occurs when a city has a working balance of economy equity and ecology to provide a high quality of life without overconsumption of resources Economy refers to the overall financial market Equity refers to equal opportunity of individuals for social capital housing for all transportation and infrastructure Justice among the population Ecology refers to the natural world and the resources used to create a quality of life Urban sustainability would include places such as Portland and the SAR of Hong Kong A lack of sustainability can be seen in places like Rio de Janeiro where the slums shows lack of equity and there is a clear distinction in class You want to create an equilibrium in which ideally there are enough jobs for everyone and the environment is not ruined Curitiba is an example of a sustainable city Jaime lerner was the first mayor of Curitiba in Brazil and implemented a bunch of sustainable practices such as parks a light rail like bus system and a recycling system taught from a young age and initiated by children 5 Globalization Be ready to discuss specific cities and the impact of Globalization Globalization international interaction and integration among people companies and Governments It is not not new and has existed since before the colonization era Commodity trading before African colonization introduced intercultural relationships and the growth of urban centers An early example was the transatlantic trade route allowed movements of primary goods and slavery from Europe to Africa to Caribbean Americas Globalization can impact cities with urban development industrialization centralization and technology Rio De Janeiro reverse concentric model A multicultural city with the smallest population percentage being indigenous most are Brazilian Their economy is based on banking and being a financial center They also thrive on manufacturing the stock market and tourism As a place of tourism

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FSU URS 1006 - Final Exam Study Guide

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