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FSU REL 3170 - Religious Ethics and Moral Problems

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Religious Ethics and Moral Problems (REL 3170) Spring 2014Study Guide for Final Exam1. Know what ethics is and what the four sources of moral reasoning are.a. Ethics is a branch of philosophy. It is also called moral philosophy. Ethics, or moral philosophy, ask basic questions about the good life, about what is better and worse, whether there is any objective right and wrong, and how we know if it there is affect the personality of a personb. Source: 1. Revelation/ Scripture 2. Reason 3. Experience 4. Tradition2. What does Novak mean by his claim that humans are sexual and social beings? How does heJustify this claim? What’s the connection between sexuality and sociality?Human persons are essentially (1) sexual being (2) social being (3) the image of god Sex and Sociality are human needs and part of the natural order- fundamental part of what god created.sex is considered a natural right- this is important because the seeming admonition “ be fruitful and multiply”. The denial of sexuality is considered destructive of human life. Human sexuality is not to be suppress but channelSociality- is the immediate source of society and its goals, society in its law and institution channel sexuality in socially acceptable seen in the mamzer-society is allowed to repent of crimepublicly so as not to lose the fellowship of the world to come – sexuality to society can’t have one without the other.Connection: both sexuality and society are considered to be natural need that society as an institution is to help fulfill. 3. How does Novak arrive at his image of an ideal sexual relationship that is: human,Heterosexual, with someone outside one’s family, consensual, monogamous, and boundTogether in marriage, thereby expressing the enduring faithfulness of God’s love for usPrecisely through our lasting love for our partner?Family is the institution that direct sexuality. Homosexuality is consider to be counter familial and counter procreative. It intentionality is purely sexual. Motif- become one flesh. Satisfaction in the personal sense is even more social than it is physical. The social requirement true can be achieve in monogamy because both are exclusively sanctified to each other rather than divided. Humans are created bi-sexual- need of a male-female relationship. Have to find your other half to create one. Human sexuality, socialized and sanctified in the covenant of marriage, becomes the way two mortal creature together existentially affirm god’s love, which alone never dies.4. How does Cahill talk about the five norms of sexuality in the Christian tradition? How haveThings changed from Augustine to Aquinas to the Reformers to contemporary Christians? CahillCentral purpose :(1) procreation 2) satisfaction of sexual desire (3) expression of positive affective relation betweeb partners (love) additional criterial to be met: martial commitment usually permanent and exclusive (marriage) (5) heterosexual (family)Augustine – the purpose of sexual union is procreation. Marriage context of legitimate sex three purpose: children; fidelity and avoidance of fornication; and the in dissolution of Christian spousesAlthough sexualy was created good. The fall it always is tainted with sin… intercourse thake place by a sheer act of bodily movement- original sin is transmitted Aquinas –human nature is distinguished by intelligence and free will. Expands Augustine perspective by drawing attention to friendship and intensity of love. Does not suggest that passion are intrinsically evil or overrides rational endsReformer- god, church and soviet Lutheran – procreation as the sole of sex and manifest ambivalence to sexual desire- marriage is a sacrament, divorce in extreme casesCalvin- procreation remain, emphasis on human sexuality, sacredness of conjugal bond with the unity of husband and wife in body and soul. Marital marriage in itself holy and is no sin for married believer. Marriage continue to be affirmed as ideal context fore sexContemporaryEmphasis on love as a norm, less on procreation. The ability to experience pleasure is seen as a positive good and an avenue of love and commitment. Affective and enjoyable aspect of sex has moral criteria5. How does Pope Paul VI, in Humanae Vitae, arrive at the conclusion that marriage/sex are Connected to God? How is genuine freedom related to this?- There is a God component in married love- It's about the totality of human existence- People following genuine freedom realize that every sexual act must be for the procreation of human life6. How do White and Jones use the same source of religious moral reasoning to reach different?Conclusions? Be able to give examples.White – favor homosexuality Jesus doesn’t mention same-sex behavior Jewish prophets say nothing about people’s misinterpretation of the Bible has left a trail of suffering, bloodshed, and death.” : As we search for truth, we are to ‘love one another.’” . To discriminate against sexual or gender minorities is unjust and un-AmericanJones- against Homosexuality most people haven’t researched it, but the church leaders have. Argues that just because some Church teachings have been violently applied that does notmean the teachings are wrong. homosexuals are undeserving of a specific class. Criticizes White’s absence of a sexual ethic7. Discuss how Hauerwas and Niebuhr both use Christianity to ground their positions on war.Why do their positions differ?Hauerwas- pacifist- morally wrong to fight – Jesus teaching is to love Niebuhr- Christian realism- morally wrong not to defend 8. Describe Niebuhr’s Christian realism. How does it fit between optimism and pessimism, andwhy is the Jewish-Christian answer superior to the modern and Marxist answers? (Neibuhr Christian realism – rejection of pacifism - Niebuhr argued that [email protected] of God cannot be realized [email protected]@because of the innately corrupt tendencies of society. Due to the injustices that arise on earth, a person is therefore forced to compromise the ideal of the kingdomof heaven on earth. Niebuhr argued that human perfectibility was an illusion, highlighting the sinfulness of humanity at a time when the world was confronted by the horrors of experiencePessimism – love ourselves more than others- incline to injustice - the idea of the frailty of man led to the demand for obedience to intended authority lacking in hope and therefore immobilizing He was as aware as anyone that


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