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FAD4615 PUBLIC POLICY EXAM 2Chapter 6 – What is Good Parenting?Does Parenting Matter?- Good parenting behaviors have the power to raise children’s intelligence or reduce their juvenile delinquencyo Parents being trained to change their parenting style for the better has a direct correlation with these positive results- Children who are deprived of parental influence sustain lifelong effects and when institutionalized never leave institutionalized careo Children who are adopted early from institutions into warm and loving families have normal or near-normal prospectsWhat is Competent Parenting?- No universal ideal parenting strategy- Authoritative parenting – balancing demandingness with responsivenesso Demandingness – setting high expectations, exerting authority effectively, setting rules, acting consistentlyo Responsiveness – expressing warmth, listening to child’s POV, engaging in verbal dialogue, explaining rules, empathy- Parent-child attachment in infancy combined with authoritative parenting in childhood and adolescence is the most competent parentingo Being aware of child’s physical and emotional needso Applies across cultures – while there may be cultural differences, general patternsof authoritative parenting is still effective even with adoption of cultural normsCan Programs Improve Parenting?- Yes, but only a small percentage of available programs are effective- Assumed Causal Mechanism – continuum of care from least extreme to most extremeo When programs that promote social support are implemented parenting improves- Biggest predictor of abusing families is lack of social support- Allows parents to collaborate, learn from each other, and provide each other with assistance when necessary- Ex. Parents Anonymouso Parenting improves when parents are educated about how to change their poor parenting skills- Ex. Books, printed family newsletters with resources, intensive training for parents in need, etc.o Parents with mental health problems need therapy or parenting interventions before parenting can improve- Stages of Prevention and Target Populations – levels of preventions based of who you aretargetingo Primary prevention – directed to everyone who has not yet exhibited the problem- Universal programs to prevent onset before it happens- Ex. media campaigns, school-based programs- Low cost with a high number of families servedo Secondary (targeted) prevention – aims to prevent recurrences or worsening of an identified problem- Geared towards high-risk populations - More intensive programs that are delivered to everyone in the risk group before we know which families will actually experience the difficulty- Most common factor for defining an at-risk group is family poverty- Ex. Nurse Family Partnership, court ordered program for abusing parents- Average cost and number of families served o Tertiary (indicated) prevention – treats established problems to reduce its negativeconsequences- Directed to families in crisis- Ex. therapy for an abused child- Government and Individual Optionso State funded evidence based programs with strong conceptual underpinnings based on validated theories that have been testedo Promoting policies regarding housing, quality schools, safe neighborhoods, and affordable healthcareo Parents taking action on their own behalf instead of waiting for aideo Grassroots movements to promote family life and balanced relationships between individual and familyo Government providing resources for parent initiated programsIs Parenting Appropriate for Policy - Parenting is both inherently private and inevitably affected by public policy - Most Americans agree that raising children is the families’ responsibility not the government’so Based under the assumption that parents operate in the best interest of their children, but basic needs are not always met or children are harmed deliberately so government must step in sometimes and is accepted by Americans under these conditionsWhat Policy Options and Personal Actions Can Promote Good Parenting?- Community-based family support and education programs - provide parents with the support and skills they need - Employment policies - provide better family leave options so parents can take of their family and children when needed without employment penalties- Marriage education and enrichment programs – provide a more stable environment with policies, benefits, and rules to ensure marriage systems are not as easy to get out of, and that when they do fail there is enough support to ensure the child’s stability- Foster parent training – increases willingness and ability of foster parents - Policymaker considerations – having policy makers investigate how policies will affect families and how to help them- Family coalitions – to develop and actively pursue policies that would strengthen familiesand support their decisions Chapter 7- Families and Healthcare- Health insurance is important because it results in healthier families, greater financial security, more preventative care, better prenatal care for women- U.S. is the only country where there isn’t guaranteed universal coverage, you can lose your insurance if you lose your job, and where the government insures only the elderly and the poor- U.S has private and public health insurance o Private group insurance – usually provided through your job for you and your family, what most people haveo Private individual insurance – coverage that you purchase on your own, only 5% of people have thiso Public health insurance – Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP (health insurance for children)- Medicare – government insurance for the elderlyo Part A – covers hospital care, limited nursing home care, hospice, and health home careo Part B – physician services, prevention careo Part C – Medicare Advantage Plans (private plans run by Medicare)o Part D – prescription drugs- Families can prevent or cause disease because of their influence on health habits, stress levels, determination of health profession involvement, acute responses, and adaption to illness and recovery- Problems with individual insurance market prior to ACAo Could be rejected for a number of reasonso Insurers could cancel policy without noticeo Could deny for pre-existing conditions o Could set lifetime spending caps - Moving towards community activation in family health care requires:o That patients and families are partners with professionalso That people

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