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FSU ECS 3600 - Indian-White Relations

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Indian-White Relations: More Applications of the Raid or Trade Model February(14,(2014 Historic(Trends(in(Indian/White(Relations • A(crude(indication(of(raid/or/trade(decisions(is(provided(by(a(comparison(between(the(numbers(of(recorded((i.e.(probably(major)(Indian/White(battles(and(the(number(of(Indian/White(treaties Major(Battles(and(Treaties Years Battles Treaties 1790-1799 7 10 1800-1809 0 30 1810-1819 33 35 1820-1829 1 51 1830-1839 63 84 1840-1849 53 18 Years Battles Treaties 1850-1859 190 58 1860-1869 786 61 1870-1879 530 0 1880-1889 131 0 1890-1899 13 0 • 1790/99:(first(decade(after(U.S.(independence(• 1817/19:(First(Seminole(War(*Chief(Osceola((• 1830:(Removal(Act;(1830/42(Removals(occur;(1835/42:(Second(Seminole(War(• 1846/48:(Mexican/American(War(o 1st(time(US(used(a(national(army(2(• 1861/65:(Civil(War(• 1871:(Congress(ended(all(treaty(writing(with(Indians(Early(Contact(• Model(suggests(that(neither(bargaining(nor(fighting(should(occur(until(settlers(seek(to(move(into(a(zone(of(controversy(o The(first(points(of(contact(between(Indians(and(European(settlers(generally(did(not(result(in(disputes(that(had(to(be(resol ved( by(either(negotiation(or(fighting( Where(land(was(contested(in(the(same(sense(that(the(Indians(asserted(their(claims(there(was(an(early(tendency(to(negotiate(and(trade([exceptions]( No(general(resistance(against(Europeans(at(this( point( Often(times,(Native(Americans(were(willing(to(turn(over(land(for(goods(Negotiation(and(Trade(Dominated(Early(• Early(settlers(recognized(the(value(of(trading(with(Indians(and(visa(versa(o Most(early(European(settlers(in(North(America(were(British(o British(and(Dutch(especially(interested(in(trade( Not(interested(in(conquering(and(taking(gold,(like(the(Spanish( Generally(willing(to(negotiate(o After(the(US(was(formed,(there(was(a(serious(effort(to(try(to(protect(Indian(rights(and(prevent(wars( Small(government(at(the(time((wars(would(be(costly(• European(diseases(also(devastated(many(Eastern(tribes(• During(the(first(part(of(the(19th(century(the(US(government(also(made(considerable(efforts(to(protect(Indian(rights(and(to(avoid(costly(wars(o There(were(some(wars,(but(not(many(compared(to(what(would(arise(later(Declining(Negotiations(and(Increasing(W a rfare(• Some(negotiation(still(continued(into(the(1860s(• In(1871,(Congress(voted(to(not(ratify(any(more(Indian(treaties(o Decided(that(the(cost(of(fighting(was(a(lot(less(tha n(the(cost(of(negotiating,(and(that(the(Indians(could(offer(little(that(could(not(be(taken(for(less(Whites(and(the(5(Civilized(Tribes(of(the(Southeast(• Consider(the(interactions(between(Whites(and( Indians(between(around(1790(and(1840(in(the(Southeast(o Much(of(the(Southeast(was(controlled(by(the(tribes(often(referred(to(as(the(“5(civilized(tribes”:(the(Cherokee,(Chickasaws,(Choctaws,(Creeks,(and(Seminoles( Farmed(in(what(is(now(Georgia,(Alabama,(Mississippi,(North(Florida,(and(parts(of(the(Carolinas,(apparently(for(centuries(• Good(relations(with(Europeans(and(adopted(many(aspects(of(European(culture(• Mostly(sedentary(farmers(• Willing(to(negotiate(with(Europeans(3(Southeast(Before(1800(• Pine(barrens(of(Coastal(Florida(and(Georgia,(and(coastal(lowlands(of(the(Carolina(was(land(that(was(pretty(much(useless(for(agriculture(as(practiced(by(the(Indians,(so(Europeans(were(allowed(to(move(into(that(area(without(much(resistance(o Before(1800,(white(settlements(in(the(Southeast(were(limited(mainly(to(that(area(o There(were(wars(involving(Indians,(but(mainly(because(they(got(involved(in(European(Wars([French(vs(English(with(tribes(siding(with(both]:( Cherokee(split(into(a(neutral(or(p ro/rebellion(group(and(a(pro/British(group((the(Chickamaugas)(during(the(Revolution( Reflects(the(lack(of(central(authority(within(tribes( Created(problems(with(treaties(between(Native(Americans(and(Europeans((not(all(tribe(members(would(agree( Not(all(tribes(wanted(to(be(friendly(wit h( Europeans( Europeans(also(had(problems(enforcing(treaties,(especially(in(the(SE(Tecumseh(• Shawnee(brothers,(Tecumseh(and(Tenskwatawa,(organized(a(pan/tribe(resistance;(goal(was(to(get(Native(Americans(to(stop(selling(land(to(the(US(• While(Tecumseh(was(in(the(south(attempting(to(recruit(allies(among(the(Creeks,(Cherokees,(and(Choctaws,(Harrison(attached(Shawnee,(defeating(Tenskwatawa(and(his(followers(at(the(battle(of(Tippecanoe(in(1811(o Was(able(to(recruit(some(tribal(chiefs,(but(some(chiefs(could(not(convince(their(followers((failed(organized(resistance( Able(to(convince(a(substantial(number(of(tribes(against(Europeans,(but(it(was(a(very(loose(front(o Americans(hoped(that(the(victory(would(end(the(militant(resistance,(but(Tecumseh(instead(chose(to(openly(ally(with(the(British,(who(were(soon(at(war(with(the(Americans(in(the(War(of(1812(o Creek(War((1813/14)(started(as(intra/tribal(conflict(but(encouraged(by(Tecumseh,(became(a(struggle(against(American(expansion(Relatively(Peaceful(• Many(Indians(sold(lands(to(Europeans(• Numerous(treaties(were(also(signed(with(Indians(ceding(land(to(Whites(in(exchange(for(money(and/or(lands(further(west(o Agreement+(involved(payment(and(federal(government(recognition(of(Indian(territories(further(west( Problem:(sometimes(these(moving(tribes(would(encroach(on(already(existing(tribes(in(the(area((conflict(• Many(members(of(the(5(tribes(adopted(European(style(homes,(towns,(and(agricultural(practices((horses,(mules,(iron(farm(equipment,(slaves)(4(Cherokee(Lands(Before(European(Arrival(• Cherokee(land(substantially(decreased(after(Revolutionary(War,(sometimes(peacefully((i.e.(exchanges),(sometimes(violently(• Part(of(the(reduction(resulted(from(the(fact(than(many(Cherokee(sided(with(the(British;(also(reduced(population(through(diseases(Changes(in(the(Incentives(of(Whites(and(I ndians(in(the(SE(• Before(1819,(the(US(government(wanted(the(tribes(as(allies,(as(a(buffer(between(the(Spanish(in(Florida(and(the(expanding(US(territories(t o( the(North(o British(also(had(occupied(parts(of(Florida(during(the(War(of(1812(and(used(it(as(a(bases( While(some(members(of(the(civilized(tribes(sided(with(the(British(others(fought(with(Andrew(Jackson(during(the(war(o US(wanted(to(keep(the(tribes(in(the(SE(o Many(tribes(did(not(like(the(Spanish(o


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