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Indian White Relations More Applications of the Raid or Trade Model February 14 2014 Historic Trends in Indian White Relations A crude indication of raid or trade decisions is provided by a comparison between the numbers of recorded i e probably major Indian White battles and the number of Indian White treaties Major Battles and Treaties Years Battles Treaties 1790 1799 7 1800 1809 0 1810 1819 33 1820 1829 1 1830 1839 63 1840 1849 53 1850 1859 190 1860 1869 786 1870 1879 530 1880 1889 131 1890 1899 13 10 30 35 51 84 18 58 61 0 0 0 Years Battles Treaties 1790 99 first decade after U S independence 1817 19 First Seminole War Chief Osceola 1830 Removal Act 1830 42 Removals occur 1835 42 Second Seminole War 1846 48 Mexican American War o 1st time US used a national army 1861 65 Civil War 1871 Congress ended all treaty writing with Indians Early Contact Model suggests that neither bargaining nor fighting should occur until settlers seek to move into a zone of controversy o The first points of contact between Indians and European settlers generally did not result in disputes that had to be resolved by either negotiation or fighting Where land was contested in the same sense that the Indians asserted their claims there was an early tendency to negotiate and trade exceptions No general resistance against Europeans at this point Often times Native Americans were willing to turn over land for goods Negotiation and Trade Dominated Early Early settlers recognized the value of trading with Indians and visa versa o Most early European settlers in North America were British o British and Dutch especially interested in trade Not interested in conquering and taking gold like the Spanish Generally willing to negotiate o After the US was formed there was a serious effort to try to protect Indian rights and prevent wars Small government at the time wars would be costly European diseases also devastated many Eastern tribes During the first part of the 19th century the US government also made considerable efforts to protect Indian rights and to avoid costly wars o There were some wars but not many compared to what would arise later Declining Negotiations and Increasing Warfare Some negotiation still continued into the 1860s In 1871 Congress voted to not ratify any more Indian treaties o Decided that the cost of fighting was a lot less than the cost of negotiating and that the Indians could offer little that could not be taken for less Whites and the 5 Civilized Tribes of the Southeast Consider the interactions between Whites and Indians between around 1790 and 1840 in the Southeast o Much of the Southeast was controlled by the tribes often referred to as the 5 civilized tribes the Cherokee Chickasaws Choctaws Creeks and Seminoles Farmed in what is now Georgia Alabama Mississippi North Florida and parts of the Carolinas apparently for centuries Good relations with Europeans and adopted many aspects of European culture Mostly sedentary farmers Willing to negotiate with Europeans 2 Southeast Before 1800 Pine barrens of Coastal Florida and Georgia and coastal lowlands of the Carolina was land that was pretty much useless for agriculture as practiced by the Indians so Europeans were allowed to move into that area without much resistance o Before 1800 white settlements in the Southeast were limited mainly to that area o There were wars involving Indians but mainly because they got involved in European Wars French vs English with tribes siding with both Cherokee split into a neutral or pro rebellion group and a pro British group the Chickamaugas during the Revolution Reflects the lack of central authority within tribes Created problems with treaties between Native Americans and Europeans not all tribe members would agree Not all tribes wanted to be friendly with Europeans Europeans also had problems enforcing treaties especially in the SE Tecumseh Shawnee brothers Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa organized a pan tribe resistance goal was to get Native Americans to stop selling land to the US While Tecumseh was in the south attempting to recruit allies among the Creeks Cherokees and Choctaws Harrison attached Shawnee defeating Tenskwatawa and his followers at the battle of Tippecanoe in 1811 o Was able to recruit some tribal chiefs but some chiefs could not convince their followers failed organized resistance Able to convince a substantial number of tribes against Europeans but it was a o Americans hoped that the victory would end the militant resistance but Tecumseh instead chose to openly ally with the British who were soon at war with the Americans very loose front in the War of 1812 o Creek War 1813 14 started as intra tribal conflict but encouraged by Tecumseh became a struggle against American expansion Relatively Peaceful Many Indians sold lands to Europeans Numerous treaties were also signed with Indians ceding land to Whites in exchange for money and or lands further west further west o Agreement involved payment and federal government recognition of Indian territories Problem sometimes these moving tribes would encroach on already existing tribes in the area conflict Many members of the 5 tribes adopted European style homes towns and agricultural practices horses mules iron farm equipment slaves 3 Cherokee Lands Before European Arrival exchanges sometimes violently Cherokee land substantially decreased after Revolutionary War sometimes peacefully i e Part of the reduction resulted from the fact than many Cherokee sided with the British also reduced population through diseases Changes in the Incentives of Whites and Indians in the SE Before 1819 the US government wanted the tribes as allies as a buffer between the Spanish in Florida and the expanding US territories to the North o British also had occupied parts of Florida during the War of 1812 and used it as a bases While some members of the civilized tribes sided with the British others fought with Andrew Jackson during the war o US wanted to keep the tribes in the SE o Many tribes did not like the Spanish o After US Seminole War US invades North Florida the Spanish agree to turn FL over to the US US no longer needs a buffer changes incentives February 17 2014 First Seminole War and the Ceding of Florida to the U S Spanish got FL back from Britain and held it until the 1st Seminole War in 1817 18 o Jackson led a force into North FL in an effort to recapture runaway black slaves living among the Seminole but Seminoles resisted Again members of other

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FSU ECS 3600 - Indian-White Relations

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