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Textbook Reading Guide, Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9Chapter 6- Trends in women’s employment and labor force participation and reasons o In 1940 less than 20% of the female population was in the labor forceo In 2006, 56% of the female population aged 16 and older was in the workforce o This was not necessarily done as a cry for liberation, but more of as an economic necessity o Women of childbearing age have especially high rates of labor force participation o Now more than 2 out 3 married women ages 25-64 are in the workforce o Women’s labor force participation has grown at a faster pace then men’s in recent decades o The most remarkable trend in women’s employment has been the rapid rise in the % of married women with children in the labor force o Reasons of increased labor force participation for women Changes in the economy- a transition from a manufacturing to a service economy has had the largest impact ***- The U.S. department of labor projects that the occupations experiencing the largest numerical gains in employment in the next decade will be personal and home care aides and home health aides  Decline in real earnings- families have become more dependent on women’s earnings due to inflation, unemployment and less purchasing power - Unless both partner’s have jobs, many families would be unable to survive economically (ex: pay the mortgage or the rent)- Women who maintained families alone had the LOWEST median family income ($28,829)  Personal fulfillment- work outside the home, paid work, gives women pride, worth and identity - It allows some economic independence from men  Women realize the gaps in work experience may relate to lower pay and job insecurity, so they understand it is in their best interest long term to work outside the homeo Women and work Working wives now contribute about 35% of their families incomeand women out earn men in about ¼ of dual earner families Men and women still different in types of work and sector of the economy  Despite family obligations, it is more likely than not that women will work outside the home while raising a family- Trends in the employment and labor force participation of men and reasonso In White males declines were importantly due to lower age of retirement, where as minorities the “discouraged worker effect” (the unemployed dropping out of the labor force after an unsuccessful period of job search) on prime working-age males played a greater role- Causes of Decreased Labor Force Participation in men o Structural unemployment- advances in technology and the shift from manufacturing to service and information have had serious consequences for male laborers especially in industrial jobs Four out of five people losing jobs are men The highest unemployment rates were found in areas in which menhold a large majority of jobs - Exs: construction (21%), agriculture (19%), and manufacturing (12%)o The redistribution of jobs- as manufacturing jobs have become more scarce, men are working in the service sector which pays MUCH less  One of the fastest growing occupations for men has been sales  One result of men’s’ lower earnings and women’s greater economic self-sufficiency is an increasing number of single parent families o Decline in real wages- men continue to supply the largest part of the family income but the share that women provide is increasing  Men’s share of family income is steadily declining - Trends in teen employmento Teen labor force participation has declined since the late 1970s o A lot of teens do “freelance” work, work that is on a casual, as needed basis such as lawn mowing or babysitting o Contemporary youth are LESS likely to be employed and work less hours than in the past o Teens in higher income families are more likely to work than teens in low income families o Teens enrolled in school are less likely to be employed than those not enrolled in school  As rates of high school graduation and advanced education rise, teens rates in the workforce DECREASE o Top five industries employing teens: 1) eating/drinking places 2) grocery stores  3) miscellaneous entertainment and services 4) construction 5) department stores - Work-family interferenceo Definition: refers to the ways in which the connections between jobs and family life may be a source of tension for workers and family members o The worlds of work and family overlap and interacto Work and family linkages vary based on the structural characteristics of eacho Variance is also created through class, race, and gender stratification systems o Family interference refers to the ways in which the connections between jobs and family life can be a source of tension for workers and families - Spillover--positive and negativeo Definition: the transfer of moods, feelings, and behavior between work and family settings o Can be positive or negativeo Work to family spillover tends to be more negative and happens more frequently o For men, work stress is more likely to affect their family life o For women, their family stress is more likely to influence their work lives - Work-family role systemo Definition: women’s and men’s uneven relationship to work and familyo This system represents a partial revision of the separate spheres model for gender roles, but still reinforces the traditional division of labor in both work and familyo Perpetuates women’s inequality in the workforce o Work Factors that Impact the Family  Gender inequality- both family and work impose unequal demandson men and women- Not only are women more likely to work part-time, earn less, and receive fewer benefits than men, but they also assume more family responsibility than men and report greater stress in both work and family roles  The demands of family intrude more on women’s work roles than on those of men For men, the role is reversed. Their work demands intrude more ontheir family lives  Marital status frequently has different implications for women and men who are seeking jobs  Pressures of balancing work and family are becoming more demanding for men as they are becoming more involved with family life  Some men are more willing to sacrifice career advancement to share family responsibilities Persistent culturally prescribed gender roles continue to shape women’s and men’s work and family behavior in predictable directions - Work hours—total demand vs. 40 hour week for

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FSU FAD 4265 - Chapter 6

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