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TCC POS 1041 - EXAM 1

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EXAM 1What is direct democracy? Government in which citizens vote on laws and select officials directlyWhat is representative democracy? Government in which the people elect those who govern and pass laws; also called a republicWhat are the meanings of democracy? • It is a way of life, a form of government, a way of governing,a type of nation, and a variety of processes. It is divided into three broad categories: a system of interacting values, a system of interrelated political processes and a system of interdependent political structures.What is statism? • The idea that the rights of the nation are supreme over the rights of the individuals who make up the nation.What kind of government did the Puritans institute in Massachusetts and how did it function? • They instituted a theocracy, a system of government in which religious leaders claimed divine guidance and in which other sects were denied religious liberty. The set up a state church which barred men from voting based on church membership. Women, slaves and native Americans could not vote at all.What was the stated purpose of the Constitutional Convention in 1787? • "to devise such further provisions as shall appear to them necessary to render the constitution of the federal government adequate to the exigencies of the union"What was the impact of shays rebellion on american politics? • it highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the constitutional convention went out.What was the 3/5 compromise? • The compromise between northern and southern states at the constitutional convention that three fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the house of representatives.Why was the constitutional convention conducted secretly? Because the original intent of the meeting was only to revise the Articlesof Confederation. None of the delegates had been authorized by their state governments to make sweeping changes to the Articles, let aloneto throw them out entirely and start over. When the delegates realized that the best course of action was to create a new national government,they decided to keep their arguments and debates secret to keep outsideinterference form derailing the project before it had a chance to be completed. So it wasn't even the "Constitutional Congress" until after their work was done and the document was presented to the public.What was the most common number of chambers in legislatures? • two chamber legislative system since colonial timesWhat was the conneticut compromise? • The compromise agreement by states at the constitutional convention for a bicameral legislature with a lower house in which representation would be based on population and an upper house in which each statewould have two senators.What type of government did the federalist want to establish? • They wanted a strong central government.What was the purpose of the federalist papers? • They wanted to persuade the voters of new york to ratify the constitution.How and when did the constitution come into effect? it came into effect in 1789 and had to be ratified by 9 of the 13 states.What country first adopted a written constitution? The United States of AmericaHow do the branches of government check and balance each other? • Congress enacts legislation, which the president must sign into law of veto. The supreme court can declare laws passed by congress and signed by the president unconstitutional, but the president appoints the justices and all of the other federal judges, with the senates approval. The president administers the laws, but congress provides money to run the government. Moreover the senate and the house of representatives have absolute veto power over each other because both houses must approve bills before they can become law.How does the supreme judicial branch check and balance the other branches?• They can declare laws passed by congress and signed by the president unconstitutional.What is divided government? • Governance divided between the parties especially when one holds the presidency and the other controls on or both houses of congressWhat is separation of powers? • Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law.How can the Executive branch expand its powers? • The president can sometimes overcome the restraints the constitution imposes onWhy did the founding fathers establish checks and balances in the constitution?• The established the system of checks and balances to prevent the branches of government and officials from pooling their authority and acting together. So that each branch would have a role in the actions of others.What is judicial review? • The power of a court to refuse to enforce a law or a government regulation that in the opinion of the judges conflicts with the U.S. constitution or, in a state court, the state constitutionHow does the supreme court declare laws unconstitutional? • The suit must first be tried in the appropriate court of original jurisdiction (for example, US District Court). The party that loses at the trial level may then appeal through the proper channels (for example, the US Court of Appeals for the [appropriate] Circuit). Then the party that loses at the Circuit Court level may file a petition for a writ of certiorari with the US Supreme Court. Optionally, the Supreme Court may exercise its jurisdictional discretion to take a case on appeal directly from District Court (bypassing the US Court of Appeals Circuit courts), but they would have to believe there was a compelling reason to do so. In order to be considered, the case must demonstrate a clear violation of the Constitution that is detrimental to the nation, its institutions, or populace. Issues with a broad impact are more likely to be reviewed than those with a narrower impact. If the Supreme Court finds the case worthy of review, they grant certiorari, receive the files from the lower courts, and place the case on their docket. The doctrine allowing the Supreme Court to evaluate legislation for constitutionalityis called "judicial review." If the Supreme Court determines a law violates the constitution, the law is nullified, and any convictions or decisions made exclusively as a direct result of that law could be reversed.What is


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