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1Political Science Notes:Politics- Struggle over power and influence within an organization (World Powers, Family, Everywhere)Government- Ultimate authority within a society; resolves conflicts through decision-making; determines winners and losers; determines who gets what.Liberty- The freedom of an individual that is consistent wit the freedom of others within societyOrder- A state of peace and order protecting members of society from crime and violence Authority- Right of a government to enforce decisions and compel obedience Consent- Government and laws exist through legitimacy Legitimacy- Popular control of a government and its powersNatural Rights- (John Loche) Superior to human law that; includes Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of happiness (land)Social Contract- Voluntary association designed to secure rights and welfare by creating a government and following its rulesConfederation- An agreement between individuals to respect each other’s decisions while working together as a central government with limited powers over statesPolitical Typology- Mutually exclusive political subjects categoriesTypes of Government- Variations of governmental structures and purposes Totalitarian- A form of government with total control over society and politicsAuthoritarian- A form of government under authority of a rulerAristocracy- A form of government ruled by the upper classDemocracy- A form of government under authority of the peopleTypes of Democracy Direct Democracy- Governmental decisions are made by the people directly (No Representative) EX: Small towns in New HampshireRepresentative Democracy- (Indirect Democracy) Governmental decisions are made indirectly by representatives of the people (U.S Government)2Types of Rules- Variations of decision-making authority Majority- Greatest number of people determines policies, and who will leadElite- Small number of people who exercise power over a large number to further their self interestPlural- Decision making is controlled through bargaining and compromise of groups of like minded individuals Types of Political Ideology- Set of beliefs about politics Conservative- A belief in a limited role in government assistance, support for traditional values, resistant to changeLiberal- A belief that the government should assist individuals; strong on civil rights, open to changeSocialism- A belief in a social and economic equality; businesses run by government and by employee cooperativesLibertarian- A belief that scrutinizes and opposes government control over societyTypes of Governmental Systems- Relationships between States Governments and National Governments Confederal System- System of government where independent States have equal power and the State Governments has limited power of the Central GovernmentFederal System- System of government where power is divided between the Central Government and the State GovernmentsUnitary System- System of government based on a centralized system of government, where States have only the powers given to them by the Central Government Types of Governmental Power- Distribution of authority and controlEnumerated- Powers specifically granted to the National Government by the Constitution(Written Down)Implied- Powers reasonably necessary to carry out powers expressly (enumerated) given to the National Government (Not Written down)Inherent- Powers held by the National Government as a sovereign state to preserve itself (Not Written down) Example: Air Force3Declaration of IndependenceDeclaration of Independence- Declaring American Colonies their independence from King George of England 1. Representation- Signed July 4th 17762. Sovereignty- Declared American Colonies an independent Country3. Inalienable Rights- All men are created equal; Life, Liberty, Land4. Popular Control- Government receives power from the people5. Risks- Signers pledge their lives, fortunes, honor, land for independence 6. Expectations- Provides no clear form of Government for colonies Articles of Confederation- (1777) Created congress (non- governmental representatives) oversees military and economy Federalist- Favored strong Central GovernmentAnti-Federalist- Favored strong State Governments U.S. Constitution and Federalism:Constitution- September 17th 1787 1. Created a Federal Government composed of a Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Branch2. U.S. Constitution and U.S. laws are supreme to States3. Provides methods to amend and ratify amendments of the Constitution 4. National Government has certain powers and State Governments have certain powersSeparation of Powers:Legislative Branch- Bicameral law-making body made up of Representatives of the people1. Senate- The Chamber composed of two individuals from each state to represent the individual states (100 members) 2. House of Representatives- The chamber composed of proportionate number of individual states based on population (435 members)Great Compromise- The compromise that created two chambers in the legislature, one based on population and one on representing each state equallyExecutive Branch- Composed of the President and his CabinetJudicial Branch- Justices empowered to determine whether laws are constitutional and to settle disputes according to the lawConstitutional Amendments- Additional Provisions to original U.S Constitution4Bill of Rights- (1791) [First 10 amendments] limited powers of National Government 1. Freedom of religion, press, speech, assembly, and to petition2. Freedom to maintain a militia and to bear arms3. Freedom not to quarter soldiers except in times of war4. Freedom against unlawful search and seizure5. Freedom against self incrimination and double jeopardy; rights to grand jury and eminent domain proceedings [Miranda]6. Right to criminal proceedings7. Right to trial by Jury in civil trial cases8. Freedom from cruel and unusual punishment, right to bail9. Rights not expressly (written down) are retained by the people10. Rights not given to the National Government or denied to State Governments belong to State Governments and peopleKey Amendments:• 13th Amendment Prohibited slavery• 14th Amendment “Due Process” and equal protection • 15th Amendment Right to Vote (Involving Race)• 19th Amendment Right to Vote (Involving Gender)• 26th Amendment Right to Vote (Involving Age)Constitutional Clauses- Provisions found in the Constitution • Commerce Clause- Power of Congress to regulate trade amongst States and with other Countries • Elastic

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TCC POS 1041 - Political Science Notes

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