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FAD3432-01Class NotesAugust 29, 2013 Why we study family problems:-today’s families live with constant insecurity and stress-help copeExamples:-job loss/ economic change-wars-natural disaster-discrimination-divorceDefining stress An observational response to stimulus or situation. Chemical, environmental or psychological. ***Family experience stress an a result of change***FACTORS of stress Macro: economy, natural disaster, wars and discriminationMicro: Job loss, homelessness, illness/mental illness, accidents, divorce/remarriage [this is “situational]Family Stress Theory- social systems perspective- strive towards equilibrium - families products of subsystems- primary focus on entire family unit ABC-X Model Family Crisis and Stress developed by Rubin HillA= provoking or stressful eventB= Family resource or strengthC= Definition or meaning attached to the event by the family X= stress or crisisDOUBLE ABC-X Model an example using the double abc-x model may be that a dad lost his job and that led to the stress of him not being able to afford the house mortgage A= stressor event; a=the stress pile up B= resource family has {ex. money}; b= coping resources developed in response to stress {ex. lives with grandma}C= perception of stressful event {“this sucks”}; c= perception of crisis as a result {“maybe we will like having to live at grandmas”}X= original family stress response; x= subsequent adaption {how did they adapt?}Things to know about Stress- not inherently bad- becomes a problem when people star tot display PHYSICAL or EMOTIONAL symptoms A Stressors & Stressor Events  associated with negative and positive events myth: happy families need to be stress free  degree of stress dependent on magnitude of event and other moderating factors normal/predictable- husband and wife preparing for a babyvs. nonnormative/unpredictable- joblossTypes of Stressors Ambiguous losso physical absent but still part of family (ex. divorce, military, missing person)o physical presence but emotionally absent (ex. Alzheimer’s, dementia, substance abuse) demoralizing events [shame: job loss, unwanted pregnancy, mental illness] Addition/loss of a family member sudden change in income or social status ongoing family conflict daily family hasslesCommon Situations: divorce, military deployment, young adult leaving home, elderly mate moving into a nursing home, preoccupation with work, obsession with computer/games/TV/phone Types of Stressor or EventsInternal vs. External Pervasive vs. BondedFast Onset vs. Gradual Onset Intense vs. MildTransitory vs. ChronicRandom vs. ExpectableNatural generation vs. Artificial generationScarcity vs. Surplus Perceived solvable vs. Perceived unsolvableB Family Resources and Strengths includes traits, characteristics, abilities of family members, the family system, andthe community that can be used to meet the demands of a stressor eventfinancial or social capital resources C Family Perceptionsfamily’s ability to redefine stressor events to better cope or adapt -clarify the issue-decrease intensity of emotional burdenlearnred cognitive style of stress response-learned helplessness or hopeless vs. learned coping-mastery orientation may believe that they can solve problems, control outcomes-fatalistic orientation everything is determined by fateX Crisis [not every stress leads to crisis]… is disturbance in equilibrium that is so overwhelming & pressure is so severe OR change that is so acute that family system is blocked, immobilized or incapacitated**crisis involves change; family does not function adequatelyCOPINGfamily research has shifted from focus on crisis, stress, and dysfunction to focus on process of coping o coping is a process not an outcomeo coping conceptualized as 3 responses1. direct action (new skills/resources)2. intrapyschic (reframe problem)3. control emotions generated by stressor Family strengths perspective: rather than focus on negative and dysfunctions, focus on strength to cope and overcome Adaption: how families can return to their equilibrium. Not necessarily to return to pre-stress state but to find a balance and equilibriumClass Notes September 3, 2013Chapter 2: Conceptualizing Parental Stress with Family Stress Theory Application of F.S.T to ParentingPressure and stress to have children - pronatalist society: family expects you to have children- antinatalist policies and programs: kids aren’t always welcome- Gender stress associated with childbearing: men vs. women-men= economic stress to support a family-women= breastfeeding, returning to work stress “work/family balance”- cultural images focus on positive without acknowledging difficulties… doesn’t show realistic view Realistic View of Parenting Pos. & Neg. challenges of daily hassles, tension, anxiety mundane and more dramatic challenges how parents appraise themselves and stress of parenting [you’re a good enough parent; perfect doesn’t exist]Using ABC-X Model for Parenting Stress or crisis not simply a direct result of event itself but also a product of how a family defines circumstance and extent to which family has resources for coping. The X Factor in ABC-X parental stress/distress due to the demands of occupying childcare and child socialization roles stress is an inevitable consequence of parenting from systems perspectives parental stress must be viewed in terms of reciprocal or multidirectional process Parent stress= a product of connections with other systemic connections and an activator of parental behavior stress responses by parents having consequences for social, emotional, and cognitive development of children stress responses by parents having consequences on child devel. parents who report greater intimacy and communication  less stress and more responsibility parent child relationship clearly characterized by reciprocal or multidirectional influences The A Factor: stressor or stressful event -Stressors neutral events -Normative: daily hassles, developmental transitions-Non normative: off time devel., initial awareness of diagnosis -chronic stressors: ADHDThe B Factor: Resources-Personal resources of parents economic wellbeing interpersonal skills (sense of humor) health (be healthy to take care of kids)-Family and social resourceso SES contexto neighbors/neighborhoodsThe C Factor: Parental Definitions*how parents define the stressful event- perception of

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FSU FAD 3432 - Class Notes

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