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Why we study family problems today s families live with constant insecurity and stress help cope FAD3432 01 Class Notes August 29 2013 Examples job loss economic change wars natural disaster discrimination divorce Defining stress An observational response to stimulus or situation Chemical environmental or psychological Family experience stress an a result of change Macro economy natural disaster wars and discrimination FACTORS of stress Micro Job loss homelessness illness mental illness accidents divorce remarriage this is situational Family Stress Theory social systems perspective strive towards equilibrium families products of subsystems primary focus on entire family unit ABC X Model Family Crisis and Stress developed by Rubin Hill A provoking or stressful event B Family resource or strength C Definition or meaning attached to the event by the family X stress or crisis DOUBLE ABC X Model an example using the double abc x model may be that a dad lost his job and that led to the stress of him not being able to afford the house mortgage A stressor event a the stress pile up B resource family has ex money b coping resources developed in response to stress ex lives with grandma C perception of stressful event this sucks c perception of crisis as a result maybe we will like having to live at grandmas X original family stress response x subsequent adaption how did they adapt Things to know about Stress not inherently bad becomes a problem when people star tot display PHYSICAL or EMOTIONAL symptoms Stressors Stressor Events A associated with negative and positive events myth happy families need to be stress free degree of stress dependent on magnitude of event and other moderating factors normal predictable husband and wife preparing for a baby vs nonnormative unpredictable jobloss Types of Stressors Ambiguous loss o physical absent but still part of family ex divorce military missing o physical presence but emotionally absent ex Alzheimer s dementia person substance abuse demoralizing events shame job loss unwanted pregnancy mental illness Addition loss of a family member sudden change in income or social status ongoing family conflict daily family hassles Common Situations divorce military deployment young adult leaving home elderly mate moving into a nursing home preoccupation with work obsession with computer games TV phone Types of Stressor or Events Internal vs External Pervasive vs Bonded Fast Onset vs Gradual Onset Intense vs Mild Transitory vs Chronic Random vs Expectable Natural generation vs Artificial generation Scarcity vs Surplus Perceived solvable vs Perceived unsolvable B Family Resources and Strengths includes traits characteristics abilities of family members the family system and the community that can be used to meet the demands of a stressor event financial or social capital resources C Family Perceptions family s ability to redefine stressor events to better cope or adapt clarify the issue decrease intensity of emotional burden learnred cognitive style of stress response learned helplessness or hopeless vs learned coping mastery orientation may believe that they can solve problems control outcomes fatalistic orientation everything is determined by fate X Crisis not every stress leads to crisis is disturbance in equilibrium that is so overwhelming pressure is so severe OR change that is so acute that family system is blocked immobilized or incapacitated crisis involves change family does not function adequately COPING family research has shifted from focus on crisis stress and dysfunction to focus on process of coping o coping is a process not an outcome o coping conceptualized as 3 responses 1 direct action new skills resources 2 intrapyschic reframe problem 3 control emotions generated by stressor Family strengths perspective rather than focus on negative and dysfunctions focus on strength to cope and overcome Adaption how families can return to their equilibrium Not necessarily to return to pre stress state but to find a balance and equilibrium Class Notes September 3 2013 Chapter 2 Conceptualizing Parental Stress with Family Stress Theory Application of F S T to Parenting Pressure and stress to have children pronatalist society family expects you to have children Gender stress associated with childbearing men vs women antinatalist policies and programs kids aren t always welcome men economic stress to support a family women breastfeeding returning to work stress work family balance cultural images focus on positive without acknowledging difficulties doesn t show realistic view Realistic View of Parenting Pos Neg challenges of daily hassles tension anxiety mundane and more dramatic challenges how parents appraise themselves and stress of parenting you re a good enough parent perfect doesn t exist Using ABC X Model for Parenting Stress or crisis not simply a direct result of event itself but also a product of how a family defines circumstance and extent to which family has resources for coping The X Factor in ABC X child socialization roles parental stress distress due to the demands of occupying childcare and stress is an inevitable consequence of parenting from systems perspectives parental stress must be viewed in terms of reciprocal or multidirectional process Parent stress a product of connections with other systemic connections and an activator of parental behavior stress responses by parents having consequences for social emotional and cognitive development of children stress responses by parents having consequences on child devel parents who report greater intimacy and communication less stress and more responsibility parent child relationship clearly characterized by reciprocal or multidirectional influences The A Factor stressor or stressful event Stressors neutral events Normative daily hassles developmental transitions Non normative off time devel initial awareness of diagnosis chronic stressors ADHD The B Factor Resources Personal resources of parents economic wellbeing interpersonal skills sense of humor health be healthy to take care of kids Family and social resources o SES context o neighbors neighborhoods The C Factor Parental Definitions how parents define the stressful event perception of child intentions parental expectations of what s normal social and familial expectations surrounding stressor Parental Coping take direct action altering interpretations managing emotions Parental Adaption ability to recover form stress and crisis through

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FSU FAD 3432 - Class Notes

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