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EXAM 1 1 What do all Anthropologists study Human kind 2 The ability to accurately cross date tree rings within a limited region is based on the fact that the patterns in ring width is associated with seasonal variation effecting all tress in a given area 3 The Moundbuilder Myth provides an example of How the social cultural and political beliefs can influence archaeological theories 4 The field of Anthropology strives to be holistic discipline in that All aspects of humanity are considered and studied 5 An artifact s provenience is The artifact s location relative to a system of spatial data collection longitude and latitude 6 The goal when performing ground reconnaissance survey is to Find every site in a region 7 The difference between scientific accuracy and precision is that accuracy measures the distance from a variables true value while precision measures the repeatability of a test to show the same result When archaeologists use 2 standard deviations ex 5000 4200BC instead of 1 ex 4800 4400BC the accuracy increases while the precision decreases 8 Geographic information systems GIS are Computer programs designed to store retrieve analyze and display cartographic data 9 Genetically modern humans today are extremely homogenous This is likely due to an evolutionary bottleneck that occurred 200 000 years ago in Africa 10 Historically the Speculative Approach to Archaeology focused on Collecting ancient relics for personal collections and display 11 What principles from Charles Darwin s 1859 publication of On the Origin of Species challenged long held scientific beliefs all of the above species are organized in nature as a branching tree species were not created in their present form but evolved from ancestral species the mechanism of change was natural selection 12 The major limiting factors for Archaeological Research are time money and people 13 The half life of Carbon 14 is 5 730 years 14 Charles Lyell s 1865 book The Geologic Evidence for the Antiquity of Man was important because it Argued for an extremely old age of the earth more than 6 000 years old via the process of uniformitarianism 15 Traditional sampling strategies include random sampling 16 In radiocarbon dating the death of an organism essentially zeros the scale because it ends the intake of Carbon 14 17 The time taken for half of the atoms of a radioactive isotope to decay is called its half life 18 A specialist from which of the four subfield of anthropology would be most likely to study ritual belief and kinship systems among the people in contemporary societies Cultural anthropology 19 Radiometric dating techniques are based on the principle that over time unstable isotopes decay into stable isotopes 20 C J Thomsen s Thee Age System stone age bronze age iron age in Europe demonstrates the misapplication of Darwin s ideas through belief in Unilinear cultural evolution 21 The usefulness of aerial photography for archaeology Lies in the fact that aerial photographs can show features that are too indistinct or too large to discern from the ground 22 The reason that radiocarbon dating results must be calibrated from BP to BC is that contrary to what Libby assumed the concentration of Carbon 14 in the atmosphere has actually varied over time 23 What types of environment are most advantageous for preservation of organic materials Cold temperatures dry or wet anaerobic 24 The law of superposition states that the farther down you go the older things are 25 In order to obtain absolute dates from volcanic material in very early contexts over 1 million years ago you would probably choose to use potassium argon dating 26 The definition of an artifact is object modified or made by people 27 The Classificatory Period in Archaeology is known for creating regional chronologies and describing regional change over time 28 Utilizing specific sequences patterns of stratigraphy between sites for relative dating purposes is called cross dating 29 Thomas Jefferson third president of the United States is considered the first scientific archaeologist in America based on his work involving his notes on the aborigines of Virginia their origin and the detailed excavation of burial mounds 30 Defining characteristics of Australopithecines include all of the above small bodies relatively small brains bipedal locomotion 31 When performing burial analyses researchers understand that all of the above the way an individual is treated in life is reflected in treatment after death people do not bury themselves artifacts are intentionally placed into a burial 32 When developing a research design the first and most important determining factor is the question you are asking 33 Louis Binford s Processual Approach stresses the use of data and objectivity 34 Waterlogged sites such as Ozette on Washington s Olympic Peninsula demonstrate how organic remains can be remarkably preserved if saturated by water and sealed in an anaerobic environment 35 To determine if an animal has been hunted or scavenged researchers look for all of the above proportion of cut marks on meaty vs nonmeaty sections of the fauna the age distribution of the butchered animals on the site the intersections of hominin tool marks and carnivore tooth marks 36 How could an archaeologist tell if flowing water rather than human behavior was responsible for the deposition of artifacts at an archaeological site Small artifacts and unmodified rocks might be mixed with owl pellets 37 Based on the principles of Luminescent dating the amount of accumulated radiation that is released from an artifact like pottery is directly correlated to the time since the artifact was last heated 38 Taphonomy is the study of the site formation considering both natural and cultural processes 39 Tropical climates do not promote organic preservation due to the high levels of humidity 40 Middle Range Theory techniques such as experimental archaeology tries to bridge the gap between Low and High range theory by recreating archaeological artifacts to explain the How questions 41 At the Varna Cemetery differences in the number and quality of burial goods amongst individuals most likely indicates differences in social status of the individuals 42 In the Ford Spalding debate on archaeological types Ford believed that the artifact types are created by researchers for their own needs 43 A scientific hypothesis is an unverified explanation to a question or problem 44 V Gordon Childe questioned the traditional

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FSU ANT 2100 - EXAM 1

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