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STUDY GUIDE FOR ANT 2100TEST 2Chapter 5-Band- A term used to describe small-scale societies of hunters and gatherers, generally less than 100 people, who move seasonally to exploit wild (undomesticated) food resources. Kinship ties are important in the social organization.Tribes- A term used to describe a social grouping generally larger than a band, but fewer then 1,000. Unlike bands, tribes are usually settled farmers, though they can have nomadic pastoral groups. Lots of kinship ties.Ethnoarchaeology- The study of contemporary cultures with a view to understanding the behavioral relationships, which underlie the production of material culture.Lineage- A group claiming decent from a common ancestor.Chiefdom- A term used to describe a society that operates on the principle of ranking. Different lineages are graded on a scale of prestige, calculated by how closely related one is to the chief. Permanent ritual and ceremonial center.Segmentary societies- Relatively small and autonomous groups, usually of agriculturalists, who regulate their own affairs.Redistribution- A mode of exchange, which implies the operation of some central organizing authority, and subsequently some of them, are sent by that authority to other locations.Obsidian- A volcanic glass whose ease of working and characteristically hard flint-like edges allowed it to be used for the making of tools.Stele- A freestanding carved stone monument.Paleolithic hunter-gatherer- A collective term for the members of small-scale mobile or semi-sedentary societies, whose subsistence is mainly focused on hunting game and gathering wild plants and fruits.Ethnography- A subset of cultural anthropology concerned with the study of contemporary cultures through first hand observation.Material Culture- The buildings, tools, and other artifacts that constitute the material remains of former societies.KEY CONCEPTS FROM CHAPTER 5:Chart for the Classification of societies: Pg 143Methods of Social Analysis:-Settlement Analysis: The main method of investigating past social organization. Data are collected by survey and excavation, but the specific methods used can vary greatly depending on the society in question.-Burial Analysis: Rank and social status are best revealed by the analysis of grave-goods within individual burials-Monuments and Public Works: The scale of monuments and public works, as well as their distribution, can be a good indicator of social organization.-Written Records: An excellent source of information about the organization of early state societies.-Ethnoarchaeology: The study of living societies in order to help interpret the past, with a specific emphasis on the use and significance of artifacts, buildings and structures, and how these material things might become incorporated into the archaeological record.Finding the Individual:-Many aspects of individual human behavior are not a cross-cultural “given” but are learned, and differ widely across both ancient and modern cultures-The existence of ethnic groups is difficult to recognize from the archaeological record: an affiliation to a particular style of material culture, for example, does not necessarily equate to ethnicity-It is important to recognize gender in the archaeological record (particularly the roles of women which have traditionally been overlooked). There is also a distinction between sex and gender: sex is biologically determined whereas gender roles in different societies vary greatly.IN CLASS NOTES:Elman Service-1962 developed a typology of Political organizations-4 types: Band, Tribe, Chiefdom, and StateSociopolitical types and economy:-Foragers= Band level society-Horticulturalists and Pastoralists= Tribe level society-Agriculturalists= chiefdoms or state level governmentBetter economy= more complex social relations and lineages.Bands:-Equilateral= no ruler. -age can bring you respect-Extremely mobile-Hunter-gatherer-Small= under 100-Have “work”, “Kill”, “Butcher”, and “Home base” sites to find.Tribes (Segmentary):-Segmentary= achieved ranks.-shaman, kinship, sexual division of labor-Horticultural/ Pastoral subsistence-Semi-permanent housing-The Village Head: cannot force anything. Can only suggest. -The “Big Man”-regional authority (across more then one village)-achieved through generosity (to others)-decisions are binding-important at religious events-Tribal Lineage-Typically Patrilineal-smaller tribes melt into bigger ones-inclusive: every village claims ancestry-exclusive: small unit that staysChiefdoms-More permanent-Office (outlasts the individual holder)-What the Chief says goes-Common ancestors-More agriculturalSTUDY QUESTIONS:-Societies are typically classified into what four main groups?-Why is the analysis of burials important to the study of segmentary societies?-How can the ethnoarchaeology of modern societies inform us about the past?-What are the key methods through which the structure of societies is analyzed?-Why is it hard to study ethnicity in the archaeological record?-What is the difference between sex and gender? Why is this difference important to archaeologists?CHAPTER 6:Context- An artifact’s context usually consists of its immediate matrix (the material around it) and its association with other artifactsIce Cores- Barings taken from the Arctic and Antarctic polar ice caps, containing layers of compacted ice useful for reconstructing paleoenvironments and as a method of absolute dating.Deep-sea Cores- Cores drilled from the seabed that provides the most coherent record of climate changes on a worldwide scale. The cores contain shells of microscopic marine organisms laid down on the ocean floor through the continuous process of sedimentation. Variations in the ratio of two oxygen isotopes in the calcium carbonate of these shells give a sensitive indicator of past sea temperatures.Palynology-The study and analysis of fossil pollen as an aid to the reconstruction of past vegetation and climates.Diatom Analysis- A method of environmental reconstruction based on plant microfossils. Diatoms are unicellular algae, whose silica cell walls survive after the algae die, and they accumulate in large number at the bottom of rivers and lakes. Thus showing extinct past communitiesFlotation- a method of screening excavated matrix in water so as to separate and recover small ecofacts and artifacts.Paleoentomology- The study of insects from archaeological contexts. The survival of insect exoskeletons, which are

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