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Chapter 5• Bands: small, everyone is equal, hunter-gatherer, and extremely mobile, unrestricted religious practices.• Tribes (segmentary): medium populations, segmentary society with an achieved rank, horticultural/pastoral, semi-permanent housing, and religious leader.• Chiefdoms: Permanent, their offices outlast the individuals who occupy them, agricultural, social status based on seniority of descent, lack social classes, kinship and descent decides wealth, political status, and social status.• States: agricultural and industrial, control over most aspects of people’s lives, population control, judiciary, enforcement, and fiscal.• Population control: establishes citizenship• Judiciary: creating laws• Enforcement: military and police to enforce laws• Fiscal: taxes and distributing funds through state.• Superordinate: Upper privileged group in society• Subordinate: Lower underprivileged group in society.• The village head: The position of village head is achieved but comes with limited authority. He cannot force people to do anything.• The Big Man: Like a village head but his authority is regional. Has influence over more than 1 village.• Segmentary Lineage: Based upon descent-group structure. • Maximal Lineages: Share a common ancestor who lived a longtime ago. (Inclusive).• Minimal Lineages: Small units in which members share a common ancestor who lived no more than four generations ago. (Exclusive).• Mortuary analysis: graves and cemeteries• Premise: people who are treated differently in life will be treated differently in death. A person’s grave will represent that person’s status. • Burial Mounds: High status individuals are buried with copper, stone, paints, exotic minerals, etc. Low status individuals are buried with ceramic vessels.• Ascribed Ranking: Infants who die will be buried the same way their parents would be buried.• Chiefdoms and States: Often built to be conspicuous, interpreted as ceremonial or gathering locations, planned and organized by ruling class.• Cuneiform: earliest form of writing with Sumerians and Babylonian.• Ethno archaeology: Studies the present day use and significance of artifacts, buildings, and structures – how they become incorporated into the archaeological record. • Binford: studied the discarding of tools and movement of people among sites.• Drop Zones: Where small pieces of bone fell• Toss Zones: Larger pieces thrown away in front and behind the individual. • Tubers: digging stickChapter 6• Changes in the environment or habitat can then help answer questions about biological and cultural adaptations.• Ocean cores and ice sheets: based on ratio of oxygen isotopes O18 and O16• Ocean floor sediments: accumulate slowly, consist of microfossils called foraminifera, during life the foraminifera continuously rebuild their shells, the oxygen in their shells gives us a record of oxygen isotope ratios. • Ice cores give us direct ratios of Oxygen Isotopes within the water molecules.• O18: Glacial Period, ice age.• O16: Interglacial period, no ice age.• 18,000 years ago: a “land bridge” emerged as sea level fell, ice age Florida.• Rivers: changes in the course of rivers affected landscape/settlement. The Nile and Tigris/Euphrates river valleys were areas of early domestication due to rich floodplains. • Palynology: The study of plant pollen, spores and certain microscopic plankton organisms.• Phytoliths: certain plants take up silica from the soil. The silica is deposited within the plant, where after the plant decays, the silica returns to the soil as a rigid microscopic piece of the plant.• Coring: Gathering Data.• Recreating Animal Environment: types of animals present, the abundance of species present, ages/development of individuals. Tundra, Desert, Swamp, Grassland, Forested, Tropical.• Macro-Faunal Analysis: The establishment of time-depth and environmental change.• Economy and Fauna: The presence of certain faunal remains can indicate how a culture ate, moved, and generally behaved. Terrestrial vs. Marine species, Domestic vs. Wild species, Old vs. Young individuals. Evidence of keeping animals alive for “secondary products” such as milk, cheese, hides/fur, or transportation.• Subsistence Patterns: The ways societies transform the material resources of the environment into food, clothing, and shelter. Population size, kinship construction, social organization, and culture change all interact with subsistence patterns.• Population Density: The number of people inhabiting an area of land.• The carrying capacity: depends on subsistence techniques and technologies, labor resources, and the natural resources people exploit.• Major subsistence strategies: Foraging, Pastoralism, Horticulture, and Agriculture.• Foraging: Relies on food natural available in the environment, the strategy for most of human history, limits population growth and complexity of social organization. Men hunt and women gather and need large amount of land• Pastoralism: Is based on the caring for domesticated animals from which they derive products and labor; primary products and secondary products.• Primary Products: Meat, leather, and bone• Secondary Products: Milk, blood, wool, and dung.• Ruminants: Cattle, Sheep and Goats, were the first food animals to be domesticated followed by pigs, possibly to dispose of table scraps and waster products. Horses and cattle were domesticated for work and transportation. Large herds that eat anything are easier to domesticate.• Domesticated Animals: They are kept for a distinct purpose, humans control their breeding, their survival depends on humans, and they develop traits that are not found in the wild.• Domestication allows humans: To contain animals with right temperament, have steady food supply, and use animals for companionship, religious purposes, and draft work.• Domestication allows animals: receive protection and a constant food supply.• Selective breeding: occurs as humans rid animals with undesirable traits.• Horticulture: production of plants using non-mechanized, non-intensive technology. Typically a tropical forest adaptation that requires cutting and burning the jungle to clear fields. Horticulture involves fallowing and agriculture requires fertilization.• Swidden: Slash and Burn• Fallowing: A plot of land is planted 2-3 years then left fallow for a year or more.• Agriculture: Production

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FSU ANT 2100 - Chapter 5

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