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Chapter 14 Narcotics and Drug Investigations Current State of Narcotics and Drug Abuse o 45 of prisoners report that they used a major drug before committing the o 16 million Americans admit to currently using an illegal narcotic during crime the past month o Drug use has currently dropped 12 year decline until 1992 since then drug usage has increased o Marijuana usage among teens has risen 300 since 1992 o Estimates 49 billion annually on drugs 31 billion for cocaine Narcotics Depressant effect on the CNS o The Opium Poppy Produces drugs such as morphine codeine heroin Grown in Mexico South America South East Asia South West Asia Highpoint in USA late 1800s Relatively rare now Most common way is smoking Principle alkaloid of opium Mostly white crystalline powder 3 times stronger then opium o Morphine o Heroine Chemically synthesized from morphine Popularity doubled worldwide in past several years for opium 500 000 750 000 heroine addicts 2nd in frequency of addiction cocaine is 1 being grown Can be injected snorted or smoked Most commonly from Afghanistan Also Colombia and Mexico Most prevalent in inner cities of large metropolitan areas Distribution Cycle o Principal Distributors Greatest profits 100 pure o Whole Sales Have funds lacks connections to produce opium o Ounce Distributors Buys in pound quantities o Street Dealers o 36 purity usually addicts sell o Methadone Totally synthetic narcotic Used in heroin detoxification programs Eliminates withdrawal symptoms o Cocaine Narcotic extracted from the leaf of the coca bush White crystal like granule form Mostly from Peru and Bolivia Gained popularity in the 1960s Free base cocaine o Crack cocaine is a form that is not in its hydrochloride powder o It is combined with baking soda and cooked o Crack is five times more powerful than regular cocaine Distribution Cycle o Principle Distributors Transport and reap greatest profits o Secondary dealers Sell directly to the street addicts o Physical and Mental Effects Opiates Depressant Rush is intense euphoric sensation lasts only minutes After rush user becomes drowsy Experience a mellow state of well being Effects for 2 5 hours dilatation of pupils Cocaine Immediate rush sensation Increased heart beat elevated blood pressure and dilation of pupils Psychological delusions Lasts usually 1 hour Depressants o Aka Barbiturates and Tranquilizers o Sedative effect on CNS o Prescribed for anxious mental conditions o Seconal Valium Nembutal o Effects seem like intoxication to others o Approximately 15 million Americans abuse prescription drugs o Rohypnol roofies is a depressant used on unsuspecting victims and put in their drinks o Rohypnol after 10 minutes creates an intense blackout o GHB is commonly abused by juveniles and young adults synthetic drug Stimulants o Methamphetamine A powerful stimulant serious and rapidly increasing problem in most of the US Increased popularity in the later 1990s High lasts for up to ten minutes Began in 1960s snort inject or smoke Smoking is most common Popularity growing and meth labs are plentiful Immediate intense rush or a delayed euphoria Typical abuser Mid 20s white male Hallucinogens o Lysergic Acid Diethylamide LSD First synthesized in Switzerland by a biochemist Most common well known psychedelic compound Typically produced in illegal drug labs in the US Liquid pill or powder form Felt only for 30 minutes to an hour o Phencyclidine PCP AKA Angel Dust Very powerful non addictive anesthetic drug hallucinogen Produces more violent behavior then any other drug Pill or smoked 7 million Americans have used it o Mescaline and Psilocybin Natural hallucinogens no physical dependence o Methlyenedioxy Amphetamine Ecstasy Increased energy raised blood pressure and heart rate Love drug Hallucinogen with amphetamine effects Brought from Mexico and Europe in capsule form Pills tablets or loose powder Users Middle class teenagers and dance parties Tablet effects brain for six hours Pupils become extremely dilated Drink lots of water to stay hydrated Increased usage well into the 2000s 1 5th of Americans have smoked 12 million currently daily users o Marijuana Gradual clime in popularity with high schoolers Rolled into cigarettes or from a pipe Altered perception drowsy or talkative 60 comes from Mexico Anabolic Steroids o Any drug related to testosterone that promotes muscle growth o Abuse is higher in urban areas Inhalants o Generally noncontrolled chemicals that emit fumes when dispensed from an air sealed container o Examples glue nail polish furniture polish o Table 14 1 Pg 380 Investigative Procedures o Difficulties Low suspect visibility risk compared to other crimes International nature of this crime category Directions of the Inquiry Production Distribution and Abuse o Sources of production Sources are known but usually outside the US Gets complicated by politics and lack of coordination South America Mexico and Asia main sources US government created El Paso Intelligence Center and now it is the worlds leading drug intelligence and training network o Sources of Distribution Dealers All levels of law enforcement combat these people FBI and DEA merged investigative drug operations in 1982 Civil Forfeiture Assets seizure is a legal punishment in which property used for illegal purposes is transferred to government ownership Most common drug trafficking is by vehicle but also is done by consumption by mutes human or animal o Sources of Abuse Usually began with a suspect Indicators of drug misuse table 14 3 pg 387 Stages in development of drug use patterns o Stage 1 o Stage 2 o Stage 3 o Stage 4 o Stage 5 Use begins with small isolated groups Users experiment with other forms of drug abuse Users focus on a specific drug and dealing accelerates Drug use increases as does the level of dealing Drug use reaches epidemic proportions and overloads police and Undercover Operations other public agency resources o Officers assume roles to accomplish a task o Case Preparation Should never be initiated without being thoroughly prepared o Field Operations Officer needs credible introduction to gain an organizations confidence All criminals are very paranoid o Drug Purchases To be charged an actual sale must take place Two ways Controlled informant buy Undercover Officer buy o The search o Search warrants and arrest warrants require planning and coordination o Major problem is the drugs can quickly be disposed of officers must attempt to gain rapid entry o Warrant should

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FSU CJE 4610 - Chapter 14 Narcotics and Drug Investigations

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