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Chapter 1 Key Terms1. Allan Pinkerton- became the first detective of the Chicago Police Department in 1849.2. Alphonse Bertillon - The founder of criminal identification by body measurement, in addition to being instrumental in the development of forensic science. He reasoned that a foolproof method of identification should be based on physical characteristics that are unchanging and not susceptible to alteration. 3. Anthropometry - Developed by Alphonse Bertillon in the late nineteenth century, the study and comparison of body measurements as a means of criminal identification. A method of identification on the uniqueness of the human frame. By this method, the human body was measured in 11 key places. The 4 most important ones measured were height, trunk, reach, and left foot. 4. Bill of rights - in 1791, the Bill of Rights (the first ten amendments of the Constitution) was directed toward federal law-enforcement agencies. The first ten amendments to the Constitution • Guarantee personal rights• Particular importance to criminal investigation include the: • Fourth Amendment search and seizure• Fifth Amendment obtaining information and confessions• Sixth Amendment assistance of counsel5. Bow Street Runners - Established by Henry Fielding in 1748, a group of volunteer, nonuniformed homeowners who helped catch thieves in London by rushing to crime scenes and beginning investigations, thus acting as the first modern detective force. By 1785, some were paid government detectives.6. CID (Criminal Investigation Department) - Established in London in 1878, a centralized organization of detectives responsible for investigating crimes; located at Scotland Yard but, to correct internal abuses, kept separate from the Metropolitan Police.7. Criminalistics - (or forensic science) The application of scientific disciplines, such as geology, physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics, to criminal investigation and the study of physical evidence.8. Detective - Introduced in 1853 in Charles Dickens novel Bleak House, published in 1853. The first recorded appearance in print of the word specifically designating an investigative law-enforcement officer.9. Eugène Vidocq - Criminal turned Paris investigator 10. Fourteenth Amendment - Added in 1868, requires that “no state shall deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law, nor deny...the equal protection of the laws.”11. Industrial Revolution- 12. Jonathan Wild13. Metropolitan Police Act - 1829, An act of Parliament that created the London Metropolitan Police, the first centralized, professional police force in Britain, which soon became the international model of professional policing.14. Modus operandi- 15. Parliamentary reward system - The govt. in England placed a system for refunding expenses of prosecutors and witnesses in an attempt to stop the floodtide of crime. This concept attached financial rewards to various felony crimes.16. Polygraph - A mechanical device that records physiological changes that occur in a person while he or she is being questioned, with deviations from normal readings indicating deception; can be used only with subject's voluntary consent. Also called lie detector. 17. Portrait parlé - or speaking picture, aided the police in identifying individuals by providing detailed descriptions of the human head and features. Was an outgrowth of Bertillon’s anthropometrical system.18. Thief-taking - Thief-catching 19. Thomas Byrnes20. Will West case - A 1903 incident in which two criminals with the same name, identical appearances, and nearly identical measurements were distinguished only by fingerprints, thus significantly advancing the use of fingerprints for identification in the United States.Review Questions1. Explain the importance that Sir Robert Peel had on modern policing. Known as the father of modern policing Instrumental in the creation of the Metropolitan Police Act which created the London Metropolitan Police (Scotland Yard) in 18292. Who was Alan Pinkerton? America’s foremost detective. Known as “America’s Founder of Criminal Investigation”- First detective of the Chicago Police Department in 1849- Opened a private detective agency in the early 1850s–the North-Western Police Agency3. Describe the role of the FBI- Significant contributions to the overall development of criminal investigation- Created a national identification file in Washington D.C.- Uniform Crime Reports Bulletin (Index Crimes tracked)- Crime laboratories- Leaders in investigative competence4. Define criminalistics-• Firearm/Toolmark• Identification• Forensic Imaging• Questioned Document• Field Response• AFIS  Contributors to Criminalistics  Juan Vucetich – Fingerprint classification Francis Galton– Dactylography (Fingerprint Identification) Edward Richard Henry– Devised a fingerprint classification system Arthur Conan Doyle– Wrote fiction depicting Sherlock Holmes Karl Landsteiner– Agglutination of human blood (blood types) Calvin H. Goddard– Forensic ballistics  Hans Gross– Wrote field handbook for criminal investigation Robert Heindl– Witness perception and reliability  he wrote a book that classified tire patterns Edmond Locard– Founded the Institute of Criminalistics– Coined “Every contact leaves a trace” Rudolph Reiss– Forensic photography Harry Soderman– Wrote Modern Criminal Investigation  August Vollmer– Concepts in police organization and administration – Supervised Larson in developing the polygraph  Paul L. Kirk– Founded crime labs in Chicago and St. Louis– Wrote Crime Investigation: Physical Evidence and the Police Laboratory Alec Jeffreys– Discovered DNA profiling5. What is forensic science? The application of natural science to the detection of crime- Chemistry- Physics- Biology- Mathematics• Scientifically trained investigators function as a liaison between specialized scientists and police officials• There are over 300 public crime labs in the U.S. today6. Explain the importance of the constitution on criminal investigations. 7. What is the exclusionary rule?-Reasons for public demands for governmental measures to control crime in eighteenth century England Population growth in the cities Growth of slums in the cities Industrial Revolution- The Bow Street Runners were Londoners that hurried to the

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FSU CJE 4610 - Chapter 1

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