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FSU PUR 3000 - Chapter 1: What is PR?

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Chapter 1: What is PR?Two-way communication- seeks feedback; PR practitioners must get feedback and pass it to managementR.A.C.E.- PR is a ProcessR- research- what is situation?A- action (of planning)- plan to do something about itC-communication- execution of planE-evaluation- was the audience reached and what was the effect?Spin- Originally positiveToday positive slant on an event or information with a point of view orLying (spin doctor)Third party endorsement- by using PR articles, newspapers “endorse”PR as management function-The management (communication) function that evaluates public attitudes, identifies policies and decisions of an individual or an organization with the public interest and executes a program of action to earn public understandingManagement Function- Practitioner should in highest decision-making part of managementChapter 2: The Evolution of Public RelationsStages in evolution of PRPR’s ancient roots- planned persuasion began in 1800 BC in Iraq where farm bulletins including latest technologies were distributedAncient Egypt-Rosetta Stone helped us understand hieroglyphicsThe info on the stones was actually publicity releases of Pharaoh’s accomplishmentsAncient Greece- Greece’s Olympic games used techniques to promote their athletesAncient Rome- Julius Caesar was the first politician to publish a bookCommentariesAs Roman emperor his “PR’ tactics rallied public support for his warsMiddle Ages- Roman Catholic Church’sPop Urban II persuaded thousands to serve G-dHoly Crusades against Muslims were used to spread ChristianityCatholic Church’s PopeGregory XV used propaganda to propagate faith, train priests and supervise foreign missionsColonial America- colonists tried to persuade King George III they had the same rights as EnglishFirst slogan- Taxation without representationFirst, greatest and best know publicity stunt- Boston Tea PartyEarly American Education- Harvard produced first fund-raising brochureKing’s College ( Columbia University) issued first news release1800’s: America experience the Golden Age of Press AgentryMost well know press agent- Phineas T BarnumPromotes America’s first entertainment celebritiesAmos Kendall- member of President Jackson’s Kitchen cabinet became first “press secretary”Publicity and promotion helped populate western U.S.Post Civil War: The Industrial RevolutionJP Morgan, William Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, Henry Clay1990-1950’s: The Pioneers of PRfirst PR agenciesIvy Lee became first PR counselBegan open, two –way communication with news mediaEdward L. Bernays- father of modern PRUsed behavioral psychologyEras since 1920Journalistic eraPR: in the 1950’sWWII brought growth to PRModern PR: 1980’s“strategic” became buzzwordMBO- management by objectivePR Today:Internet influenceFeminizationChapter 3: Ethics3 basic value orientationstell the truth- act with honesty and integrityemphasize educationmay censure or expel (but no license is required)Accreditation/licensing:Requires five years experienceBachelor’s degree, pass testMovement to require continuing educationV.N.R.s- Code for VNRsQuestion of whether public is notified of course of VNRCode for Good practice calls for accurate reliable infoIs sponsor identified in opening?Those interviewed clearly identified on tape?Gifts to influence publication- PR practitioners should not provide junkets of doubtful news value, extravagant parties, expensive gifts and personal favors to the mediaP.R.S.A.- Public Relations Society of America:20,000 members, 116 national chapterstop 4 responsibilities:(1) media relations (2) writer/editor(3) marketing communications(4) corporate communicationscodes of ethics:Advocacy, Honesty, Expertise, Independence, Loyalty, FairnessChapter 4:Public Relations Departments and FirmsLine and staff functions/positions- PR managementMilitary-type structureLine manger sets rules and everyone under follows the rulesLines product revenueLine manager- #1 authorityHas power to give order to subordinatesResponsible for attaining the organizations goals as efficiently as possibleStaff managers- no direct authorityCant delegate authorityIndirectly influence works of others, using suggestion or recommendationsOffer advice, support and service to line departmentsSources of friction for PR-Outsourcing- using outside PR personnel in communication activities (firms)Many firms spend more than 40% of their budgets on outside PRWhy outsource?To bring in expertise and resources not found insideTo supplement ongoing internal activityMost frequent activities to outsource:Writing and communication needsMedia relations expertisePublicity needsStrategy and planningEvent planningPros of outsourced firmsObjectivity, variety of skills, extensive recourses, special problems solving skills, credibility, geographicConsSuperficial grasp of problem, lack of full time commitment, need for prolonged briefing period, need from strong direction by top management, need for full info and confidenceAdvantages/disadvantages of using PR firms:Pros:ObjectivityA variety of skills and expertiseExtensive resourcesOffices throughout the countrySpecial problem-solving skillsCredibilityCons:Superficial grasp of client’s problemsLack of full-time commitmentNeed for a long briefing periodResentment by internal staffNeed for strong direction by top managementNeed for full information and confidenceCostsGeorge Westinghouse- first public relations department1889- hired 2 men to publicize pet projectAlternating current electricity (AC)Chapter 5: ResearchResearch as a tool- PR is a processResearch is 1st step1) To achieve credibility with management –if you want to be seen as good in public relations, learn to do research2) To define targets – you don’t know who your target will be until you know who your target istarget consists of:lifestylesdemographicsconsumption patterns3) To find the right strategyEx: A paper mill began a program to tell its local community what it was doing about pollutionThe research showed community already new what it was doingSo the strategy changed: I became telling community how the mill affected community’s economy4) To test messagesEx: Auto dealers thought hybrid buyers wanted to buy to save the environment. WrongChanged strategy toward consumers wanting to save money on gas5) Helps management stay in touch“Periodical surveys” help companies know what’s on consumers minds6) Prevent crisis90% of organizational crises


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