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The Brain and Cranial Nerves_____________________________________________________________3 Major Parts1. Cerebruma. Have elevations called gyrus’ and depression called sulcus’.i. Longitudinal Fissure – Sulcus that divides right and left hemispheres of brainb. Consists of and outer cerebral cortex, an internal region of cerebral white matter, and gray matter nuclei deep within the white matter. c. Corpus Callosum – Responsible for communication between the hemispheresd. Cerebral Lobes – named after the bones which lie over them. i. Frontal – Motor information + planning + judgmentii. Parietal – Integrates incoming sensory informationiii. Occipital – Visioniv. Temporal – Hearing info + many others.e. Central Sulcus – Middle of cerebrum, divides parietal and frontal lobe. Divider of sensory and motor information. (Motor = anterior to it, Sensory = posterior to it.)f. 5th part of the cerebrum, the insula, cannot be seen at the surface of the brain because it lies within the lateral cerebral sulcus. 2. Cerebellum – responsible for skeletal muscle movementsi. Separated from the cerebrum by the transverse fissure3. Brain Stem (3 subparts)a. Medulla Oblongata – responsible for most cardiovascular functions, most inferior. i. Emerging from the lateral medulla posterior to the olive in descending order are the glossopharyngeal nerves (IX), the vagus nerves (X), and the bulbar accessory nerves (XI). The hypoglossal nerves (XII) emerge from the lateral medulla anterior to the olive.b. Pons – in middle; bridge for skeletal muscle information coming in and out of cerebellum. Helps M.O. with respiration. c. Midbrain – Superior; Visual + Auditory reflex center. i. Cerebral Aqueduct – passes through midbrain connecting the 3rd and 4th ventricle.Diencephalon – Link between 3 parts of the brain. Made up of:1. Hypothalamus – Anterior + close to pituitary gland; Relay station for smell, function for homeostasis.2. Thalamus - In middle; Relay station for all sensory information except for smell.a. Basal Ganglia – helps coordinate slow, sustained movements ; lateral to thalamus3. Epithalamus – Most dorsal part; responsible for sleep-wake cycles. Contains the Pineal gland which releases melatonin. Cranial Meninges – protective coverings of brain, 3 types:1. Dura Mater – tough outer layera. Falx Cerebri, Falx Cerebelli, and Tentorium Cerebelli. i. Falx Cerebri fold of dura mater that descends vertically in longitudinal fissure + separates two cerebral hemispheres.ii. Falx Cerebelli small triangular process that separates 2 cerebellar hemispheres. Located in the transverse fissure.2. Arachnoid Mater – Spidery3. Pia Mater – thin, delicate. Cerebrospinal Fluid nourishes brain tissue + provides protection; made in between arachnoid + pia mater, called the subarachnoid space. Ventricles – have specialized cells that make cerebrospinal fluid; 2 lateral, 3rd and 4th ventricle.Cranial Nerves - OOOTTAFVGVAH" is "Oh, oh, oh, to touch and feel very good velvet...ah, heaven”I. Olfactory Nerve – Sense of smell – sensoryII. Optic Nerve – sense of sight – sensoryIII. Oculomotor Nerve – innervate extraocular muscles to move eyes, facilitates pupillary constriction – motorIV. Trochlear Nerve - innervate extraocular muscles to move eyes, superior oblique muscle – motorV. Trigeminal Nerve – Sensations in face, biting, chewing – sensory + motorVI. Abducens Nerve - innervate extraocular muscles to move eyes, lateral rectus muscle – motor VII. Facial Nerve – facial expression, taste anterior 2/3 of tongue – sensory + motorVIII. Vestibulocochlear Nerve(acoustic)– senses sound – sensory IX. Glossopharyngeal Nerve – taste from posterior 1/3 tongue – sensory + motorX. Vagus Nerve – (Main PS nerve)Controls heartbeat, breathing, a lot more – sensory + motorXI. Accessory Nerve – Controls shoulder and neck – motorXII. Hypoglossal Nerve – controls tongue movement , swallowing, speech – motorThe Endocrine System & the Heart_________________________________________________________Major Endocrine Organs• Pineal Gland• Hypothalamus• Pituitary gland• Thyroid gland• Parathyroid gland•• Thymus gland• Adrenal Glands• Pancreas• Ovaries + TestesPituitary Gland – Called the “Master Endocrine Gland” because it regulates the activities of other hormone realeasing glands. • Stimulated by the hypothalamus, which releases pre-hormones. (anterior + posterior)• The infundibulum connects the posterior pituitary to the hypothalamus. • Anterior : Glandular tissueo GH (somatotropin), TSH, LH/FSH, PRL, ACTH• Posterior : Neurohormones; storage areao Oxytocin and ADH.HypothalamusReleasing hormones:• TRH, GHRH, GnRH, CRHInhibiting hormones:• Somatostatin• DopamineThyroid Gland• Calcitonino Opposes PTH, stimulates osteoblasts• TH: Stimulates glucose oxidationParathyroid Glands• PTHo Most important hormone in calcium regulation, stimulates osteoclastsPancreas• Insulin – Beta Cells• Glucagon – Alpha CellsAdrenal GlandsMedulla: Nervous tissue, interior to adrenal cortex; releases catecholamines (NE + E)Cortex: Corticosteroids: separated into 3 zones• Zona Glomerulosa – most superior, secretes mineralcorticoidso Aldosterone – promotes Na+ and H20 retention, reg. BP + BV• Zona Fasciculata – middle, secretes glucocorticoidso Cortisol – gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, increase blood sugar.• Zona Reticularis – bottom, secretes androgens.o Estrogen + Progesterone(ovaries)- growth + development.o Testosterone in males (testis)Pineal Gland• Controls sleep-wake cycle, secretes melatoninThymus• Peptide hormones that influence normal T-cell developmentBlood Flow through HeartSuperior + inferior vena cava  right atrium  tricuspid valve  right ventricle pulmonary valve  pulmonary artery  lungs  pulmonary veins  left atrium  bicuspid valve  left ventricle  aortic valve  aortaAuricles are extra covering of the atria seen when dissecting the heart.Pericardium – outer layer of muscle tissueHeart Wall – made of • Epicardium- visceral layer of the serous pericardium • Myocardium- the contractile layer• Endocardium – endothelial layer that is continuous with the blood vessels.Chordae Tendineae – open and close the AV valves, attached to papillary muscle in heart. The

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FSU PET 3322L - The Brain and Cranial Nerves

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