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Things she discussed today in class 4/2/13DURABILITY:WHAT IS DURABILITY? It is not a test, it is a category of tests.KNOW TYPES OF FRICTION TESTING: WHAT IS IT?WHAT IS PILLING? WHY IT HAPPENS? AND WHAT FABRICS DOES IT HAPPEN TO MORE?ABRASION AND THE DIFFERENT KINDS? FLAT ABRASION, HOW TO DISTINGUISH IT FAILED?SNAGGING? WHAT THEY ALL ARE? KNITS ARE MORE PRONE TO SNAGGING.DON’T WORRY ABOUT STRENGTHCOMFORT:HOW IS COMFORT DEFINED? CAN BE DEFINED BE SOMETHING PHYSICAL OR PSYCHOLOGICAL AND NEED TO HAVE HARMONY TO BE COMFORTABLECONDUCTIONCONVECTIONMOISTURE:WATER REPELLENCYWATER RESISTANCEWATER PROOFHANDFLAMMABILITY:COMBUSTIONREQUIREMENT AND WHY WE DO TESTING FOR FLAMMABILITY?COLOR:COLOR FASTNESSCROCKINGEVALUATION PROCESSGREY SCALE IS USED TO DETERMINE WHAT? CHANGE IN COLORCOLOR CHANGEWHICH TEST DO YOU WANT THE LOWEST NUMBER? DIMENSIONAL CHANGECOLORFASTNESS TO LAUNDRYDurability – Something that is related to the serviceability/wearThings that happen during the wearing processFriction- things rubbing togetherFriction testing – describes the resistance to relative motion between two objects in physical contact with each other.Usually involves testing for snagging, pilling, abrasion.Testing is assessed as a measure of loss of some part of the material or change in appearance.Sometimes assessed by weighing the fabric or visual comparisonPilling – results when fibers end or other fiber debris is broken away from surface and becomes entangled with fibers that are still attached to materialIt is evaluated by using visual comparison between specimen and 5-point photographic rating scale (5 is the best rating/no pilling, 1 is very severe pilling, the accepted level for most apparel is 3.5)Pilling propensity - the extent and ease of pilling (the likelihood of something happening).Pilling resistance – resistance to formation of pills on a textile surfacePilling testing – evaluates the fabric’s resistance to abrasion. You will be using the Random Tumble Pilling TesterAbrasion – damage caused to a fabric as a result of rubbing against a surface or other material.Flat abrasion – flat object is rubbed against a flat material (this is what we used in lab)Flex abrasion – the material is bent or flexed during rubbingEdge abrasion – material is folded back on itself and rubbedSome retailers establish their own internal performance standards as a tool to provide merchandise acceptable to their customers that may be more stringent than others.SnaggingOften occurs as fabrics come in contact with rough surfaces or undergo the rubbing process associated with abrasion in actual wear.Spun and filament yarns are both prone to snaggingStrength – resistance to deformation or breakage caused by application of a force; one of most common reasons named for testing textilesTensile strength – max resistance of material deformation in a tensile test carried to ruptureBursting strength – measures the amount of force required to burst the fabric; used on nonwovens and knit; force is applied – a steel ball or rubber diaphragm is forced through fabric under pressureSeam strength – the maximum resistance to rupture at the juncture formed by stitching together two or more adjacent to the stitch line; determines optimum sewing conditions (stitches, stitch type, sewing thread)Tearing strength – a measure of a materials resistance to the continuation of a tear; materials must resist the forces of tension, folding, puncture. A fabric which tears easily is usually regarded as inferiorWater Repellent- fabrics resist penetration by water but are not completely waterproofWaterproof – no water can penetrate the fabric. Water droplets cannot penetrate, some are coated with plastic or rubber.Absorbency depends on the same properties – fibers, yarn, fabric, finishes; your fabric is considered absorbent if it absorbs in 5 seconds or less; some fabrics don’t need a finish if they have high twist to be repellantHydrophilic vs. hydrophobic –Spectral reflectance curve – a plot of reflectance vs. light wavelength. When you can no longer see any reflectance, your fabric is considered to have absorbed the water droplet. (this is why we did the water droplets on the fabric by the window in lab)Static electricity – usually caused when certain materials are rubbed against each other, like wool on plastic or the soles of your shoes on the carpet. The process causes electrons to be pulled from the surface of one material and relocated on the surface of the other material.Combustion – a chemical process in which oxidation produces heat energyLimiting oxygen index – the amount of oxygen required to support the combustion of a fiber (normal 19-21%)Cellulosic – 17-20Wool- 25.2Manufactured – 18-20.6Fibers with LOI above 21 self extinguishFlame resistance – the property of material whereby flaming combustion is prevented, terminated or inhibited following application of a source of ignitionFIRE TRIANGLE: In order to have a fire you must have these three elementsFlame retardant - finishes work by blocking one leg of the fire triangle usually blocking the oxygenFlammable Fabrics ActPassed in 1953, banned the use and sale of highly flammable materials for clothingAmended in 1967, included carpets, draperies, bedding and upholsteryConsumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) – they are responsible for recalls on many products; regulated by the consumer product safety commissionTextile fires result from1. Mattresses/bedding2. Upholstered furniture3. Clothing4. Curtains/drapes5. Carpets/rugs# 1 cause of textile fires in homes is from smoking in bed.Flame retardantNondurable – water-solubleSemi durable – will withstand a limited number of launderings or cleaningsDurable – must withstand laundering or other cleaning throughout the expected life of the materialTopical- added after material is madeSolution- added in solution when fiber is manufactured. More expensive; must bond with other chemicalsHand – the tactile sensation or impressions that arise when materials are touched, squeezed, rubbed, or otherwise handled.Drape – occurs when only part of the fabric is directly supported and gravity produces deformation in the unsupported portion; there is no standardSome fabrics are known to have no drape; jeans have no drapeWhat affects drapability? Fiber content, fiber structure, and yarn structure.Heat Transfer phase change- heat transfer occurs when an object changes its physical state.Liquid to

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FSU CTE 4443 - Exam 2

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