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P a g e | 1Study Guide (Test 2 – Sp2013), DIE 4310 – Fall, 2012Professor: Dr. Jenice Rankins Designing Community Interventions – Chapter 151. Be able to describe how to design a community intervention (such as understanding the target group, having tools, choosing the right strategy). • Need to understand behavior of target population• Must have tools or strategies to influence behavior• Is targeted at a nutrition-related problem• An effective nutrition intervention program:o Integrates good instructional design and learning principles.o Uses media that facilitate a high degree of individualization o Is undergirded by a behavior change theory.2. Describe and give examples of the different levels of intervention strategies (Such as build awareness, create a supportive environment, provide incentives for behavioral change at individual, community, and system levels). • Build awareness• Create a supportive environment• Provide incentives for behavioral change at individual, community, and system level.3. Describe/discuss five theories/models of health behavior (Diffusion of innovation, Social Cognitive Theory, Theory of Reasoned Action, Health Belief Model, Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change); know their constructs, definitions, and examples of their application in designing community nutrition interventions). • Diffusion of Innovation Model: o Developed to explain how a product or idea becomes accepted by a majority of consumers.o Consists of four stages: Knowledge: person is aware of the innovation and has acquired some information Persuasion: Person forms an attitude either in favor of or against the innovation. Decision: Person performs activities that lead to adopting or rejecting the innovation  Confirmation: Person seeks reinforcement for his or her decision and many change if exposed to counter-reinforcing messages. • Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavioro Behavior is determined directly by a person’s intention to perform the behavior Intentions: the instructions people give to themselves to behave in certain ways.P a g e | 2• Value placed on behavioral outcomes• Opinions of significant others• Intentions are influenced by attitudes and subjective norms (perceived social pressure to perform or not to perform the behavior) Attitudes are determined by:• Belief that a certain behavior will have a given outcome.• An evaluation of the actual outcome of the behavior.• A perception of his or her ability to control the behavior.• Social Cognitive Theory: o Explains behavior in terms of a model in which behavior, personal factors such as cognitions, and the environment interact constantly, such that a change in one area has implications for the others.o Cognitions: the knowledge and awareness we have of our environment and the judgments we make related to it.o The main focus is on target behaviors rather than on knowledge and attitudes.Concept Definition ImplicationsEnvironment Factors that are physically external to the personProvide opportunities and social supportSituation Person’s perception of the environmentCorrect misperceptions and promote healthful normsBehavioral CapabilityKnowledge and skills to perform a given behaviorPromote mastery learning through skills trainingExpectations Anticipatory outcomes of a behaviorModel positive outcomes of health behaviorExpectancies Values that the person places on a given outcome or incentivePresent outcomes of change that have a functional meaningSelf-Control Personal regulation of goal-directed behavior or performanceProvide opportunities for self-monitoring and contractingObservation Behavioral acquisition that occurs by watching Include credible role models of the targeted behaviorP a g e | 3the actions of othersReinforcement Response to a persons behavior that increases or decrease the likelihood of recurrencePromote self-initiated rewards and incentivesSelf-efficacy Persons confidence in performing a particular behaviorApproach behavior change in small steps; seek specificity about the change soughtEmotional Coping ResponseStrategies or tactics that are used by a person to deal wit emotional stimuliProvide training in problem solving and stress management.• The Health Belief Model:o Developed to explain why people failed to participate in programs designed to detect or prevent disease. If a person realizes they are susceptible and that it is a serious risk they are more likely to make the change.o Model has three components: Perception of a threat to health• Susceptibility: Let a person know they have the risk of developing a certain disease because of their present behaviors.• Seriousness: How serious is the issue? Can it be put off to deal with at a later time? Expectations of outcomes related to a behavior• Benefits• Barriers: Economic, social and familial. Show the person that even with barriers, the outcome will outweigh the barriers. Self-Efficacy: Belief that one can make the change.• Transtheoretical Model: Stages of Changeo Tailoring an intervention to an individual’s stage of change is more effective than not considering their readiness to change.o Stages: Pre-contemplation: Do not want to do it, in denial of need for change. Contemplation: Maybe thinking of making a change. AmbivalentP a g e | 4 Determination/Preparation: Ready to make the change, motivated. Action: Doing the things in order to make the change.  Maintenance: Making the changes a part of your lifestyle. Relapse: Give the person coping mechanisms to help during this time.4. Be able to apply the Stages of Change Model (What does each stage mean for guiding intervention focus and strategy?) 5. Define terms such as subjective norm, cultural group, social group, focus group, self-efficacy, expectancies, expectations, emotional coping response, attitude, cognitions. • Subjective Norm: perceived social pressure to perform or not to perform a behavior. • Cultural Group: • Social Group: • Focus Group: • Self-efficacy: Persons confidence in performing a particular behavior. • Expectancies: Values that the person places on a given outcome or incentive.• Expectations: Anticipatory outcomes of a behavior.• Emotional coping response: Strategies or tactics that are used by a person t deal with emotional stimuli.• Attitude:• Cognition: The Knowledge and awareness we have of our environment and the judgments we make

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FSU DIE 4310 - Study Guide

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