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MORFOSINTASSI INGLESE 22/02/2022PROCESSES OF WORD FORMATION: DERIVATION AND COMPOUNDINGDERIVATION vedi dispense profThe addition of a derivational affix to a root produces a new word with one or more of the following changes Phonological change including stress change reduce—reduction An orthographic change to the the root pity---pitiful deny—denial A semantic change husband – husbandry event—eventualA change in word class eat v—etable adj impress v –impression nDERIVATIONAL AFFIXES vedi dispense prof x sicurezzaThey can be prefixes or suffixes Native (from oe )or foreign borrowings (especially french)Their productivity ranges from very limited ( -th as in ) to quite extensive Which affix attaches to which root is quite arbitrary and unpredictable Thus, derivation is part of the lexicon not part of the grammar of a language DERIVATIONAL PREFIXES vedi dispense profOnly three prefixes which are no longer productive in english systematically change the part of speech of the root-A N/V—A Ablaze asleep astir astride abed abroadBE- N—V betoken befriendEN- A/n—v enlarge MEANING-CHANGING DERIVATIONAL PREFIXES Non cambia la categoria solo il significatoNumber -tri triannual tricycle -multi multilingual multimillioner multinationalPlace -in in-patient infield ingrown -inter interconnect interlaceDegree -super superintensive superheat -over overanxious overduePrivation -a amoral apolitical -un unlock unfoldNegation -un unafraid unsafe unwise -anti antisocial antitrust antiwarSize -micro microcosm microchip microfilm -mini miniskirt minivanSome of those prefixes are native english -after -in -over -un while pre- inter- super- and mini- come from latin and tri- a ad micro- from greek.Many of the native prefixes also exist as indipendent prepositions and adverbs under- over-.DERIVATIONAL SUFFIXES - Suffixes have two functions change the meaning of the root and the part of speech of the root - Many suffixes attached to nouns change their meaning but not their class The diminuitive suffixes -ling -let -y -ie (princeling piglet daddy hoodie) The feminine suffixes -ess -ette -rix -ine (actress, usherette,dominatrix) The abstract suffixes -ship -hood -ism making abstract nouns out of nouns ( frindship, neighborhood, hoodlumism) suffixes denoting people such as –(i)an – ist -er (librarian texan marxist londoner)Some suffixes only change the meaning attached to adj-ish nearly not exactly as greenish coldish-ly resemblance es goodly sickly lonelyCLASS-CHANGING DERIVATIONAL SUFFIXES Very often suffixes change the word class of the root ( V—N A—N)Any suffix which produces a noun is called a nominalizer. A suffix which produces a verb is called verbalizer.One which produces an adjective from a noun a verb or another adjective is called an adjectivalizer.The smallest set of class-changing suffixes is the adverbializer.NOMINALIZER SUFFIXES V—N -ment -er -ation-al -ance -ence ignorance refusal legalization worker arrangement judgement A—N -dom -ness -ity legality happiness freedomA CASE STUDY -IST vedi appunti monicaThe formation of complex words is not always entirely predictable or regular-ist is typically added to common nouns or proper nouns It results in a phonetThe semnatics of -ist words is also more complex than first suggested since such words may denote persons adherent to a theory anarchist person exercising a scientific profession dentist pr persons addicted to an ideology In the last category VERBALIZER SUFFIXES A/N—V -ify -ize -ate -en pacify simplify publicize orchesrate lighten ADVERBIALIZER SUFFIXES A/N – ADV -ward -ly – way homeward quicly anyway somewayProductive processADJECTIVALIZER SUFFIXESN—A -y -ous -ful flowery delightful famousV—A -ive -able- ful -ent – ant absorbent hopefull accetable generativeSPLINTERS The false morphological division of words may result in more or less productive suffixes Ham/burger – cheeseburger fishburgerAlc/oholic workaholic chocaholic rageaholicMar/athon telethon workathon telethon swimathon walkathonPano/rama autorama motoramaCaval/cade aquacade motorcadeHeli/copter – heliport helidrome helistopThese words might also be analyzed as blends as we will seeEXPRESSING DERIVATION Derivation can be stated in terms of lexical rules Mis- + align v + -ment misalignment nImage n + -ine + ary imaginary a False a + -ify falsify vREDUPLICATIONA process similar to derivation in which the initial syllabe or the entire word is doubled exactly or with a slight phonological changeNot a common or regular process in english Often used in children’s language boo-boo putt-puttTypes :- exact reduplication papa mama goody-goody so-so - Ablaut reduplication in which the vowel alternates and the consonants are identical criss cross zig zag- Rhyme reduplication in which the consonants change while the vowel remains the same fuddy duddy razzle dazzle roly poly hocus pocusReduplication can be formed with 2 meaningful parts for ex flower power brain drain boy toy Reduplication has many different functions it can express disparagement namby pamby intensification super duper diminuition teeny weeny onomatopoeia tick tock or alternation ping pong among other usesCOVERSION OR FUNCTIONAL SHIFT chiedi monica A functional shift involves the conversion of one part of speech to another without the addition of a suffix as in phone n – to phone v It is sometimes said a zero derivational suffix is added The only concrete change that may occur in a functional shift is a change in stress COMMON KINDS OF FUNCTIONAL SHIFTS IN ENG V—N ( a ) run drive walk bruise cut look call, dump spy.N—V (to) man head shoulder telephone lust contact skin mail most commonA—V ( to) empty dirty quiet idle dirty bare quiet tame lowerA—N (a) daily double private commercial formal red roastPARTICLE – V (to) down, up ,off ,out, thwartLESS COMMON KINDS OF CONVERSIONPrep—n ins and outs ups and downsAdv—n whys and whereforesPrefix—n pros and cons- It is difficult to know in conversions which is the original form and which the converted one To hammer the stake with a rock Is the noun or the verb original?- Stress changes accompany the conversion of phrasal

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