PSU ARTH 100 - Art History Final Study Guide

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Art History Final Study Guide- Bronze Head of a Yoruba Ruler o Ire, Nigeriao Lost-wax castingo Sculptural tradition of casting lifelike human headso Flesh is covered with thin, parallel scarification pattern (decorations made by scaring) – remarkably sensitiveo Lips and eyes bulge outwardo Crown suggests it may represent a female oni – may have been attached to wooden figures and mannequins o Idealized images representing physical beauty and moral charactero Influence from Greece or Renaissance Europe- Hip Mask Representing a King’s Mothero Benin, Nigeriao Oba, King of Benin – started tradition of memorial sculptureo Ornamental masko Carved as a belt ornament worn at the oba’s hipo Pupils and scarification patterns on the forehead were inlaid with iron o Represent Idia – mother of Esigie and raised army and used magical powers to son defeat enemieso Portuguese helped Esigie expand his kingdom; necklace represents heads of Portuguese soldiers with beards and flowing hairo Crown – Portuguese heads alternate with figures of mudfish, symbolize Olokun, the Lord of the Great Waters o Oba (king) – viewed as semidevine, mediates between the human world and the supernatural world of Olokun- Baule Spirit Spouseo Ivory Coasto Spirit world is parallel realm – spirits have families, live in villages, and possess personalities complete with faults and virtues – each lived there before we were born and had spirit spouse we left behind when we entered this worldo Difficulty assuming his or her gender-specific role as an adult Baule (man not married and woman not pregnant) and dreams of his or her spirit spouse, diviner may prescribe commissioning of an image of the spirit spouse – female/maleo Figure displays most desirable marks of beauty – spirit spouses may be encouraged to enter and inhabit themo Keeps figure in their room, dresses it in beautiful textiles and jewels, washes, anoints, feeds, and caresses o Baule hopes caring for pleasing their spirit spouse – balance will be restored that will free individual’s human life to unfold smoothly- St. John on Patmoso French painter Nicolas Poussin, 1640 in Italyo Reorganized nature, buildings, and figures into ordered compositions o Consistently organized progression from picture plane to a horizon through clearly defined foreground, middle ground, and background1Art History Final Study Guideo Receding zones are marked by alternating sunlight and shade and Classical architectural elements  Imaginary ruined temple and obelisk; left round building – Hadrian’s tomb Precisely placed trees, hills, mountains, waters and clouds have architectural formal solidarity – balance of order and nature- Progress of Loveo Fragonard, 1771; French Rococo styleo The Meeting – shows a secret encounter between a young man and his sweetheart o Free and dynamic visions of loverso Explode in color and luxurious vegetation; rapid brushwork- Oath of the Horatiio French Neoclassical painter, Jacque-Louis David, 1784o Painted as a royal commissiono Inspired by Pierre Corneille’s seventeenth-century drama, Horace, based on ancient Roman historyo David invented for painting – Horatii taking an oath to fight to the death for Romeo Young men’s father, Horace, standing at the center, administers the oath to his sons o To the right – daughter-in-law Sabrina (from an enemy family) and daughter Camilla (betrothed to Sabrina’s brother) both weep – lose someone regardless of outcome of battleo Tense energetic young men with swords strike a powerful contrast to the limp swooning of the women, already mourning the tragedy to comeo Figural composition is stabilized by the interlocking of classical pyramidal groupings and repeated arches in the backgroundo Moral message – valuing patriotic duty above personal interests and family obligationso Become emblem of the French Revolution of 1789- The Grande Odalisqueo Ingres – student of David, 1814o Emulated the Renaissance artist’s graceful lyricism, precise drawing, and idealized formso Most famous paintings were sultry portraits of aristocratic women and exotic, orientalizing fantasies featuring nude odalisques (female slaves or concubines living in a Turkish sultan’s harem)o Cool gaze of woman levels at her master, while turning her naked body away from what we assume is his gaze – makes her simultaneously erotic and aloofo Cool blues of couch and curtain heighten the effect of the woman’s warm skino Tight angular crumpled sheets accentuate the languid, sensual contours of her body o Fluid lines and elegant postures – Neoclassicism; odalisque, elongation of back, widened hips, tiny boneless feet – romanticism – helped ensure dominance of Neoclassicism over Romanticism in French painting- The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsterso Goya, 1799 – Spain, Romantic movement2Art History Final Study Guideo Famous as a painter and printmakero Etching from Los Caprichoso Images are attack on contemporary Spanish manners and moralso Shows slumbering personification of Reason, behind whom lurk dark creatures of the night – owls, bats, and a cat – they are loose when Reason sleepso Following prints show follies of Spanish life – hope to alert people to their errors and reawaken their reasoning o Goya’s portrait of human folly and cruelty is bitter and disturbing - Raft of the Medusao Gericault, 1819 – Romanticism, Pariso Shipwreck of the Medusao 1816, ship carrying colonists headed for Madagascar ran aground o Insufficient lifeboats – 152 passengers and crew build raft – tossed on stormy seasfor nearly 2 weeks before it was foundo 15 passengers survived on human flesho Gericault shows moment when they first spot their rescue shipo Involves a series of interlocking triangular figural groups o Outstretched arms of victims lead viewers’ eyes to the upper right – climactic figure of Jean Charles, an African survivor, is held aloft, waving a red cloth to attract attention of ship o Placing black man on top and giving him power to save his comrades – Gericault suggests that freedom for all will occur only when the most oppressed member of society is emancipatedo Eternal struggle of humanity against the elements; illustration of human tragedy, revealing injustice that often causes it and inspiring responses of indignant compassion- The Operao Charles Garnier, 1861-1874 – Paris opera houseo Covered with “neo-Baroque” decoration – recall an earlier period of French

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PSU ARTH 100 - Art History Final Study Guide

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