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Jaymie Ticknor Intro Nutrition Science 2460 Sect 002 22 June 2014 Chapter 7 Chapters 7 9 Unit 3 Intracellular Fluid the fluid held at any given time within the walls of the body s cells 50 70 of a healthy adult s body weight is fluid Extracellular Fluid the fluid outside the body s cells either in the body s tissues or as the liquid portion of blood called plasma 1 Tissue Fluid also called interstitial fluid flows between the cells that make up a particular tissue or organ such as muscle fibers or the liver 2 Intravascular Fluid found within blood and lymphatic vessels a Plasma is the fluid portion of blood that transports blood cells through blood vessels i Also contains proteins that are too large to leak out of blood vessels into surrounding tissue fluid Solutes dissolved substances minerals that are critical for hydration and neuromuscular function 1 Sodium 2 Potassium 3 Chloride 4 Phosphorus 5 Salts sodium and chloride Electrolytes a substance that dissociates in solution into positively and negatively charged ions and is thus capable of carrying an electrical current Sodium potassium chloride and hydrogen phosphate Sodium chloride table salt Also maintain extracellular fluid balance Ions any electrically charged particle either positively or negatively charged Solvent a substance that is capable of mixing with and breaking apart a variety of compounds Water is a good solvent Metabolic Water the water formed as a by product of our body s metabolic reactions Breakdown of carbohydrates fats and proteins This water contributes about 10 14 of the water the body needs each day Depolarization stimuli prompt changes in membranes that allow an influx of sodium into the nerve cell causing the cell to become slightly less negatively charged Repolarization the cell membrane returns to its normal electrical state through the release of potassium to the outside of the cell Hypothalamus command center for fluid management Kidneys removes excess sodium from the body Chapter 8 Blood Volume the amount of fluid in blood 2 7 liters needed for women 3 7 liters needed for men Calcium flows in and out of muscle cells from the extracellular space Provides muscle contraction stimulus Heat Stroke a potentially fatal response to high temperature characterized by failure of the body s heat regulating mechanisms Commonly called sunstroke Thirst Mechanism a cluster of nerve cells in the hypothalamus that stimulate our conscious desire to drink fluids in response to Increase in the concentration of salt in our blood decrease in blood pressure and blood volume or dryness in the tissues of the mouth and throat Hypernatremia a condition in which blood sodium levels are dangerously high Hyponatremia a condition in which blood sodium levels are dangerously low Hyperkalemia a condition in which blood potassium levels are dangerously high Hypokalemia a condition in which blood potassium levels are dangerously low Atoms cannot be broken down by natural means Particles physicists learned how to split atoms into these components Nucleus the positively charged central core of an atom It is made up of two types of particles protons and neutrons bound tightly together The nucleus of an atom contains essentially all of its atomic mass Electron a negatively charged particle orbiting the nucleus of an atom Metabolism the process by which our body breaks down and builds up molecules Oxidation a chemical reaction in which molecules of a substance are broken down into their component atoms During oxidation the atoms involved lose electrons Reduction atoms that are capable gaining electrons during metabolism Exchange Reaction loss and gain of electrons typically results in an even exchange of electrons Free Radical a highly unstable atom with an unpaired electron in its outermost shell Formed during everyday body processes that produce energy Antioxidants perform their role in stabilizing free radicals in three ways 1 Antioxidant vitamins work independently by donating their electrons or hydrogen atoms to free radicals to stabilize them and reduce the damage caused by oxidation 2 Antioxidant minerals including selenium copper iron zinc and manganese act as cofactors function properly a A mineral or other inorganic substance that is needed to allow enzymes to b These minerals function within complex antioxidant enzyme systems that convert free radicals to less damaging substances that are excreted by our bodies 3 Phytochemicals beneficial plant chemicals such as beta carotene and other compounds help stabilize free radicals and prevent damage to cells and tissues Vitamin A may act as an antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and protecting LDLs from oxidation Keshan disease a heart disorder caused by selenium deficiency It was first identified in children in the Keshan province of China Kashin Beck Disease a disease of the cartilage that results in deforming arthritis Symptoms include impaired immune responses infertility depression hostility impaired cognitive function and muscle pain and wasting Provitamins an inactive form of a vitamin that the body can convert to an active form Ex beta carotene Converts beta carotene to the active form of vitamin A retinol thus beta carotene is a precursor of retinol Vitamin A is highly toxic and supplementing the diet with 3 times the RDA for vitamin A is a toxin Chapter 9 high Calcitonin a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland when blood calcium levels are too Inhibits the actions of vitamin D preventing reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys limiting calcium absorption in the small intestine and inhibiting the osteoclasts from breaking down bone Inhibits absorption of calcium by the kidneys and intestine Vitamin D is considered a hormone because it is made in one part of the body yet regulates various activities in other parts of the body Regulates calcium absorption and utilization Phylloquinone the primary dietary form of vitamin K and also formed found in plants Menaquinone animal form of vitamin K produced by bacteria in the large intestine Prothrombin a protein that plays a critical role in blood clotting Osteocalcin a protein associated with bone turnover This is a coenzyme in the regulation of blood coagulation Magnesium is a critical cofactor needed for an enzyme to be active for more than 300 enzymes systems and is necessary for the production of ATP Deficiencies disrupt mineral retention by kidneys Fluorohydroxyapatite fluoride combines with calcium and phosphorus to form

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UNT HMGT 2460 - Unit #3 : Chapters #7-9

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