UNT HMGT 2460 - Chapter #1 : The Role of Nutrition in Our Health

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Jaymie TicknorIntro Nutrition Science 2460 Sect. 0022 June 2014Chapter #1 : The Role of Nutrition in Our Health What is Nutrition?● Nutrition: the science that studies food and how food nourishes our body and influences our health○ Encompasses how we consume, digest, metabolize, and store nutrients and how these nutrients affect our body○ Involves studying the factors that influence our eating patterns■ Making recommendations about the amount we should eat of each type of food■ Attempting to maintain food safety■ Addressing issues related to the global food supply○ Discipline that encompasses everything about food● Scurvy: vitamin C deficiency● Nutrition Myth or Fact? Pellagra: characterized by a scaly skin rash○ Brewer’s yeast, containing B-vitamins and niacin, can prevent or reverse the disease○ Not an infectious disease● Chronic Diseases: diseases that come on slowly and can persist for years, often despite treatment○ Ex: obesity, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and various cancersHow Does Nutrition Contribute to Health?● Substances you take in your body are broken down and reassembled into your brain cells,bones, muscles - all of your tissues and organs○ Food also provide your body with the energy it needs to function properly○ Proper nutrition can help us improve our health■ Prevent certain diseases■ Achieve and maintain a desirable weight■ Maintain our energy and vitalityNutrition is One of Several Factors Supporting Wellness● Wellness: a multidimensional, lifelong process that includes:○ Physical■ Nutrition and physical activity○ Emotional■ Positive feelings about oneself and life○ Social■ Family, community, and social environment○ Occupational■ Meaningful work or vocation○ Spiritual health■ Spiritual values and beliefs● Two critical aspects of physical health:1. Nutritiona. Influenced by how much energy we expend doing daily activities2. Physical Activitya. Level of physical activity has a major impact on how we use the nutrients in our food● Healthful nutrition and regular physical activity can increase feelings of well-being and reduce feelings of anxiety and depressionA Healthful Diet Can Prevent Some Diseases and Reduce Your Risk for Others● Poor nutrition is a direct cause of deficiency diseases○ Can contribute to the development of brittle bones (osteoporosis)○ Strongly associated with three chronic diseases:■ Heart disease■ Stroke■ Diabetes● Top ten causes of death in the U.S.○ Obesity■ Primary link between poor nutrition and mortality■ Consequence of eating more Calories than are expended■ Well-established risk factor for:● Heart disease● Stroke● Type 2 diabetes● Some forms of cancer● Two goals of a healthful diet:1. Prevent nutrient-deficiency diseases, such as scurvy and pellagra2. Lower the risk for chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and heart diseasesWhat are Nutrients?● Nutrients: chemicals found in foods that are critical to human growth and function○ Six groups of nutrients found in foods:1. Carbohydrates: provides energy2. Fats and oils: provides energya. Two types of lipids3. Proteins: provides energy4. Vitamins5. Minerals: inorganic6. Water: inorganic● Organic: a substance or nutrient that contains the elements carbon and hydrogen○ Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and vitaminsMacronutrients Provide Energy● Macronutrients: nutrients that our body needs in relatively large amounts to support normal function and health○ Body breaks down macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) and reassemble their components into a fuel that supports physical activity and basic functioningEnergy is Measured in Kilocalories● Kilocalories (kcal): amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram (about2.2 lbs) of water by 1 degree Celsius○ Energy in foods is measured in this unit of energy○ Energy found in 1 gram of carbohydrate is equal to 4 kcal● Calorie: 1 kcal is equal to 1,000 Calories● Energy: general concept of energy intake or energy expenditure○ Carbohydrates and proteins provide 4 kcal per gram○ Alcohol provides 7 kcal per gram○ Fats provide 9 kcal per gramCarbohydrates are a Primary Fuel Source● Carbohydrates: primary fuel source for our body, particularly for our brain and for physical exercise○ Carbo- refers to carbon and -hydrate refers to water (hydrogen and oxygen)○ Ex: rice, wheat, and other grains as well as vegetables, fruits, legumes (lentils, drybeans, and peas), milk and other dairy products, seeds, and nutsFats Provide Energy and Other Essential Nutrients● Fats: important energy source for our body at rest and during low-intensity exercise○ Lipids: diverse group of organic substances that are insoluble in water○ Contain less oxygen and water than carbohydrates○ Foods containing fats provide fat-soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids○ Our body is capable of storing large amounts of fat as adipose tissue■ These fat stores can then be broken down for energy during periods when we are not eating○ Solid fats : butter, lard, and margarine○ Liquid fats : oils, vegetable oils (canola and olive oils)○ Cholesterol : form of lipid that our body can make independently, and it can be consumed in the dietProteins Support Tissue Growth, Repair, and Maintenance● Proteins: the only macronutrient that contains nitrogen○ The basic building blocks of proteins are amino acids○ Also contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen○ Main role is in building new cells and tissues○ Regulates the breakdown of foods and our fluid balance○ Found primarily in meats and dairy products■ Also in seeds, nuts, legumes, vegetables and whole grainsMicronutrients Assist in the Regulation of Body Functions● Micronutrients: nutrients needed in relatively small amounts to support normal health and body functions; vitamins and minerals are micronutrients○ Vitamins: organic compounds that assist us in regulating our body’s processes■ Assist with releasing and using the energy in carbohydrates, fats, and proteins■ Critical in building and maintaining healthy bone, muscle, and blood■ Support our immune system to fight infection and disease■ Ensure healthy vision■ Two types of classifications:1. Fat-soluble vitamins: vitamins that are not soluble in water but are soluble in fat; these include vitamins A, D, E, and K2. Water-soluble vitamins: vitamins that are soluble in water; these

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