UNT HMGT 2460 - Unit #2 : Chapters #4-Vit & Min

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Jaymie TicknorIntro Nutrition Science 2460 Sect. 00215 June 2014Unit #2 : Chapters #4-Vit & Min Chapter #4:● Carbohydrate: one of the three macronutrients, a compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, that is derived from plants and provides energy○ Hydrated carbon■ Contains water■ CHO○ Fruits, vegetables, and grains■ Orange juice is an example● Simple Carbohydrates: commonly called sugar○ Can be either a monosaccharide (such as glucose) or a disaccharide○ Monosaccharide: The simplest of carbohydrates in which four of these sugars consist of a single sugar molecule○ Disaccharide: a carbohydrate compound in which the other three sugars consist of two molecules of sugar joined together● Glucose, fructose, and galactose are the three most common monosaccharides in our diet○ Each of these contains six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms○ Slight differences in the arrangements cause major differences in levels of sweetness● Fructose: the sweetest natural sugar○ A monosaccharide that occurs in fruits and vegetables○ Also called levulose or fruit sugar○ Comes in the form of high-fructose corn syrup■ A highly sweet syrup■ Manufactured and processed from corn■ Is used to sweeten soft drinks, desserts, candies, and jellies● Galactose: a monosaccharide that joins with glucose to create lactose, one of the three most common disaccharides● Ribose: a five-carbon monosaccharide that is located in the genetic material of cells○ DNA and RNA○ Very little is found in our diets○ Bodies produce ribose from other carbohydrates we eat● Lactose, Maltose, and Sucrose are the three most common disaccharides found in foods● Lactose: a disaccharide consisting of one glucose molecule and one galactose molecule○ It is found in milk, including human breast milk■ Much sweeter than cow’s milk because of having more lactose○ Also called milk sugar● Maltose: a disaccharide consisting of two molecules of glucose○ Does not generally occur independently in foods but results as a by-product of digestion○ Called malt sugar○ Fermented during the production of beer and liquor, making them not good sources of carbohydrate● Sucrose: a disaccharide composed of one glucose molecule and one fructose molecule○ Is sweeter than lactose or maltose● Complex Carbohydrates: a nutrient compound consisting of long chains of glucose molecules called polysaccharides such as starch, glycogen, and fiber○ Second major type of carbohydrate● Starch: a polysaccharide stored in plants○ The storage form of glucose in plants○ Some starches in plants are not digestible = resistant■ Classified as a type of fiber○ Butyrate: when our intestinal bacteria ferment resistant starch, this fatty acid is produced■ Reduces the risk for cancer○ Food sources include:■ Grains (wheat, rice, corn, oats, and barley)■ Legumes (peas, beans, and lentils)● Contain more resistant starch than do grains, fruits, or vegetables■ Tubers (potatoes and yams)○ Two forms of starch:1. Amylose2. Amylopectin● Glycogen: a polysaccharide that is the storage form of glucose in animals○ Food with a low glycemic index would be peanuts● Dietary Fiber: the nondigestible carbohydrate parts of plants that form the support structures of leaves, stems, and seeds● Functional Fiber: the nondigestible forms of carbohydrates that are extracted from plants or manufactured in a laboratory and have known health benefits○ Cellulose, guar gum, pectin, and psyllium● Total Fiber: the sum of dietary fiber and functional fiber● Soluble Fibers: fibers that dissolve in water○ Also are viscous■ Form a gel when wet○ Fermentable■ Easily digested by bacteria in the colon○ Typically found in citrus fruits, berries, oat products, and beans○ Reduces the risk of for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes by loweringblood cholesterol and blood glucose levels○ Pectins: contain chains of galacturonic acid and other monosaccharides■ Found in the cell walls and intracellular tissues of many fruits and berries○ Gums: contain galactose, glucuronic acid, and other monosaccharides■ Guar gum and gum arabic○ Mucilages: contain galactose, mannose, and other monosaccharides■ Psyllium: husk of psyllium seeds, also known as plantago or flea seeds■ Carrageenan: comes from seaweed● Insoluble Fibers: fibers that do not dissolve in water○ Found in whole grains, such as wheat, rye, and brown rice as well as in many vegetables○ Lignins: noncarbohydrate forms of fiber■ Found in woody parts of plant cell walls and in carrots and the seeds of fruits and berries● In brans (the outer husk of grains such as wheat, oats, and rye) and other whole grains○ Cellulose: the main structural component of plant cell walls■ Found in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and legumes○ Hemicelluloses: contain glucose, mannose, galacturonic acid, and other monosaccharides■ Found in plant cell walls and they surround cellulose● Fiber-rich carbohydrates: fruits, vegetables, and whole grains● Gluconeogenesis: the generation of new glucose from the breakdown of proteins into amino acids● Insulin; the hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas in response to increased blood levels of glucose○ It facilitates the uptake of glucose by body cells● Glucagon: the hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas in response to decreased blood levels of glucose○ It causes the breakdown of liver stores of glycogen into glucose● Epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, and growth hormone are additional hormones that work to increase blood glucoseChapter #5:● Lipids: a diverse group of organic substances that are insoluble in water○ Include triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols○ Fats and oils are two different types of lipids■ Fats are solid at room temperature■ Oils are liquid at room temperature● Triglyceride: a molecule consisting of three fatty acids attached to a three-carbon glycerol backbone○ Also called triacylglycerols○ Most common form of fat in our diet○ The form in which most of our body fat is stored referred to as adipose tissue (metabolically active tissue)○ During digestion, it is broken down into monoglyceride and two fatty acids● Fatty Acids: long chains of carbon atoms bound to each other as well as to hydrogen atoms○ Contain an acid group (carboxyl group) at one end of their chain● Glycerol: an alcohol

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UNT HMGT 2460 - Unit #2 : Chapters #4-Vit & Min

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