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Jaymie Ticknor Intro Nutrition Science 2460 Sect 002 15 June 2014 Chapter 4 Chapters 4 Vit Min Unit 2 Carbohydrate one of the three macronutrients a compound made up of carbon hydrogen and oxygen that is derived from plants and provides energy Hydrated carbon Contains water CHO Fruits vegetables and grains Orange juice is an example Simple Carbohydrates commonly called sugar Can be either a monosaccharide such as glucose or a disaccharide Monosaccharide The simplest of carbohydrates in which four of these sugars consist of a single sugar molecule Disaccharide a carbohydrate compound in which the other three sugars consist of two molecules of sugar joined together Glucose fructose and galactose are the three most common monosaccharides in our diet Each of these contains six carbon atoms twelve hydrogen atoms and six oxygen atoms sweetness Slight differences in the arrangements cause major differences in levels of Fructose the sweetest natural sugar A monosaccharide that occurs in fruits and vegetables Also called levulose or fruit sugar Comes in the form of high fructose corn syrup A highly sweet syrup Manufactured and processed from corn Is used to sweeten soft drinks desserts candies and jellies Galactose a monosaccharide that joins with glucose to create lactose one of the three most common disaccharides Ribose a five carbon monosaccharide that is located in the genetic material of cells DNA and RNA Very little is found in our diets Bodies produce ribose from other carbohydrates we eat Lactose Maltose and Sucrose are the three most common disaccharides found in foods Lactose a disaccharide consisting of one glucose molecule and one galactose molecule It is found in milk including human breast milk Much sweeter than cow s milk because of having more lactose Also called milk sugar Maltose a disaccharide consisting of two molecules of glucose Does not generally occur independently in foods but results as a by product of digestion Called malt sugar Fermented during the production of beer and liquor making them not good Sucrose a disaccharide composed of one glucose molecule and one fructose molecule sources of carbohydrate Is sweeter than lactose or maltose Complex Carbohydrates a nutrient compound consisting of long chains of glucose molecules called polysaccharides such as starch glycogen and fiber Second major type of carbohydrate Starch a polysaccharide stored in plants The storage form of glucose in plants Some starches in plants are not digestible resistant Classified as a type of fiber Butyrate when our intestinal bacteria ferment resistant starch this fatty acid is produced Reduces the risk for cancer Food sources include Grains wheat rice corn oats and barley Legumes peas beans and lentils Tubers potatoes and yams Two forms of starch 1 Amylose 2 Amylopectin Contain more resistant starch than do grains fruits or vegetables Glycogen a polysaccharide that is the storage form of glucose in animals Food with a low glycemic index would be peanuts Dietary Fiber the nondigestible carbohydrate parts of plants that form the support structures of leaves stems and seeds Functional Fiber the nondigestible forms of carbohydrates that are extracted from plants or manufactured in a laboratory and have known health benefits Cellulose guar gum pectin and psyllium Total Fiber the sum of dietary fiber and functional fiber Soluble Fibers fibers that dissolve in water Also are viscous Form a gel when wet Fermentable Easily digested by bacteria in the colon Typically found in citrus fruits berries oat products and beans Reduces the risk of for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes by lowering blood cholesterol and blood glucose levels Pectins contain chains of galacturonic acid and other monosaccharides Found in the cell walls and intracellular tissues of many fruits and berries Gums contain galactose glucuronic acid and other monosaccharides Guar gum and gum arabic Mucilages contain galactose mannose and other monosaccharides Psyllium husk of psyllium seeds also known as plantago or flea seeds Carrageenan comes from seaweed Insoluble Fibers fibers that do not dissolve in water Found in whole grains such as wheat rye and brown rice as well as in many vegetables Lignins noncarbohydrate forms of fiber Found in woody parts of plant cell walls and in carrots and the seeds of fruits and berries other whole grains In brans the outer husk of grains such as wheat oats and rye and Cellulose the main structural component of plant cell walls Found in whole grains fruits vegetables and legumes Hemicelluloses contain glucose mannose galacturonic acid and other monosaccharides Found in plant cell walls and they surround cellulose Fiber rich carbohydrates fruits vegetables and whole grains Gluconeogenesis the generation of new glucose from the breakdown of proteins into Insulin the hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas in response to increased amino acids blood levels of glucose It facilitates the uptake of glucose by body cells Glucagon the hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas in response to decreased blood levels of glucose It causes the breakdown of liver stores of glycogen into glucose Epinephrine norepinephrine cortisol and growth hormone are additional hormones that work to increase blood glucose Chapter 5 Lipids a diverse group of organic substances that are insoluble in water Include triglycerides phospholipids and sterols Fats and oils are two different types of lipids Fats are solid at room temperature Oils are liquid at room temperature Triglyceride a molecule consisting of three fatty acids attached to a three carbon glycerol backbone Also called triacylglycerols Most common form of fat in our diet The form in which most of our body fat is stored referred to as adipose tissue metabolically active tissue During digestion it is broken down into monoglyceride and two fatty acids Fatty Acids long chains of carbon atoms bound to each other as well as to hydrogen Contain an acid group carboxyl group at one end of their chain Glycerol an alcohol composed of three carbon atoms It is the backbone of a triglyceride molecule Saturated Fatty Acid SFA a fatty acid that has no carbons joined together with a atoms double bond Generally solid at room temperature Coconut oil palm kernel oil butter cream whole milk and beef animal based 40 60 energy Monounsaturated Fatty Acid MUFA a fatty acid that has two carbons in the chain bound to each other with one double bond Generally

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UNT HMGT 2460 - Unit #2 : Chapters #4-Vit & Min

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