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ATHLETIC TRAINING IMIDTERM STUDYGUIDE20141. Know taping basics, prewrap, body position, continuous vs non - Avoid Continuous Taping- Start/End w/ an anchor- Tape comes in different widths- Tape the joint in the most stable position- Prewrap (roll of thin foam) can be used to protect skin in cases where tape is used daily- Prewrap should only be applied one layer thick when taping and should be anchored proximally and distally2. Know difference between acute and chronic conditions.Acute: Occur suddenly during activity (sprained ankle, broken hand)Chronic – Tramatic, occurs over time from overuse3. Know signs and symptoms of shock and different types of shock.• Generally occurs with severe bleeding, fracture, or internal injuries• Result of decrease in blood available in circulatory system– Vascular system loses capacity to maintain fluid portion of blood due to vessel dilation, and disruption of osmotic balance• Movement of blood cells slows, decreasing oxygen transport to the body– Hypovolemic - decreased blood volume resulting in poor oxygen transport– Respiratory - lungs unable to supply enough oxygen to circulating blood (may be the result of pneumothorax)– Neurogenic - caused by general vessel dilation which does not allow typical 6 liters of blood to fill system, decreasing oxygen transport- Cardiogenic shock – rapid but weak pulse; Inability of heart to pump enough blood- Psychogenic - syncope or fainting caused by temporary dilation of vessels reducing blood flow to the brain- Septic - result of bacterial infection where toxins cause smaller vessels to dilate- Anaphylactic - result of severe allergic reaction- Metabolic - occurs when illness goes untreated (diabetes) or when extensive fluid loss occurs-- Signs and Symptoms- Moist, pale, cold, clammy skin- Weak rapid pulse, increasing shallow respiration decreased blood pressure- Urinary retention and fecal incontinence- Irritability or excitement, and potentially thirst4. Know signs and symptoms of heat illness and how to avoid it.• Identify susceptible athletes• Use weight charts to weigh them before and after practice- should come within one pound or two after practiceHeat stroke – skin hot, red, and dry- Encourage Hydration- Athletes need to adjust to climate- Urine should be light yellow color- Most dehydration occurs when 2% of body weight is lost.- Treatment for Stroke – Lower core temp.5. Know what issues to consider when developing your emergency management plan.- Locations of phones, ambulance access to venue, emergency access to equipment- Primary concern is maintaining cardiovascular and CNS functioning- Key to emergency aid is the initial evaluation of the injured patient- Members of sports medicine team must at all times act reasonably and prudently- Must have a prearranged plan that can be implemented on a moments notice- Separate plans should be made for separate facilities6. Know about spine boarding Spine boarding—maintain position of head and neck, 4-5 people to perform technique– EMS should be contacted if this will be required– Must maintain head and neck in alignment of long axis of the body– One person must be responsible for head and neck at all times– Primary emergency care must be provided to maintain breathing, treating for shock and maintaining position of athlete – Permission should be given to transport by physician – If patient is a football player, helmet must stay in place with face mask removed– Head and neck are stabilized with strapping– Trunk and limbs are secured– If patient is supine, straddle-slide method can be used– Again requires 4-5 people (captain responsible for head and neck, 2 others for trunk and limbs, and 4th to slide the board)7. Know basics of strength training.Strength – ability to generate force against resistance Power: is the relationship between strength and timeMuscular endurance: repetitive muscular contractions (increase strength = increase enduranceStrength training—improvements in strength are made by progressive overload, SAID principle (specific adaptations impose demands), youth should not lift any weight (only use own body weight)8. Why do we use RICES.Rest Ice Compression Elevation – acute stages of injury to control pain and swelling, reduces recover time.9. How many lbs are the safest to lose per week. - 1-2 lbs. per week10. What is the purpose of the preseason physical exam? - safety of athlete, rule out unqualifying conditions11. Know the steps in performing an injury evaluations, HOPS, mechanism of injury.- HOPS (history observation palpation special treatments) ligament stability - Mechanism of injury - the way the injury occurred, key to understanding how to do an evaluation and initial treatment- History- Obtain subjective information relative to how injury occurred, extent of injury, MOI- Inquire about previous injuries/illnesses that may be involved as well as past treatments- Ask the following questions- What is the problem?- How and when did it occur?- Did you hear or feel something?- Which direction did the joint move?- Characterize the pain• Observations– Asymmetries, postural mal-alignments or deformities?– How does the athlete move? Is there a limp?– Are movements abnormal?– What is the body position?– Facial expressions?– Abnormal sounds?– Swelling, heat, redness, inflammation, swelling or discoloration?• Palpation- Bony & soft tissue - Special Tests- Used to detect specific pathologies- Compare inert and contractile tissues and their integrity- Assessment should be made bilaterally- Range of Motion Assessment- Active- Passive - Normal vs. Abnormal end points- Manual muscle tests- Goniometric measures vs. Digital inclinometers12. Know signs and symptoms of inflammation.- Redness, Swelling, ,Warmth, Pain, Dysfunction13. Know the aspects of the primary and secondary surveys.- Primary survey- Performed initially to establish presence of life-threatening condition- Airway, breathing, circulation, shock and severe bleeding - Used to correct life-threatening conditions- Secondary survey- Life-threatening condition ruled out- Gather specific information about injury- Assess vital signs and perform more detailed evaluation of conditions that do not pose life-threatening consequences14. Why should you treat epiphyseal injuries special? - They are the growth plates in children and can affect the growth of extremeties.15. Know the components of SOAP method of record keeping,

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