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ATHLETIC TRAINING I MIDTERM STUDYGUIDE 2014 1 Know taping basics prewrap body position continuous vs non Avoid Continuous Taping Start End w an anchor Tape comes in different widths Tape the joint in the most stable position Prewrap roll of thin foam can be used to protect skin in cases where tape is used daily Prewrap should only be applied one layer thick when taping and should be anchored proximally and distally 2 Know difference between acute and chronic conditions Acute Occur suddenly during activity sprained ankle broken hand Chronic Tramatic occurs over time from overuse 3 Know signs and symptoms of shock and different types of shock Generally occurs with severe bleeding fracture or internal injuries Result of decrease in blood available in circulatory system Vascular system loses capacity to maintain fluid portion of blood due to vessel dilation and disruption of osmotic balance Movement of blood cells slows decreasing oxygen transport to the body Hypovolemic decreased blood volume resulting in poor oxygen transport Respiratory lungs unable to supply enough oxygen to circulating blood may be the result of pneumothorax Neurogenic caused by general vessel dilation which does not allow typical 6 liters of blood to fill system decreasing oxygen transport Cardiogenic shock rapid but weak pulse Inability of heart to pump enough blood Psychogenic vessels reducing blood flow to the brain Septic result of bacterial infection where toxins cause smaller vessels to dilate Anaphylactic result of severe allergic reaction syncope or fainting caused by temporary dilation of Metabolic occurs when illness goes untreated diabetes or when extensive fluid loss occurs Signs and Symptoms Moist pale cold clammy skin Weak rapid pulse increasing shallow respiration decreased blood pressure Urinary retention and fecal incontinence Irritability or excitement and potentially thirst 4 Know signs and symptoms of heat illness and how to avoid it Identify susceptible athletes Use weight charts to weigh them before and after practice should come within one pound or two after practice Heat stroke skin hot red and dry Most dehydration occurs when 2 of body weight is lost Encourage Hydration Athletes need to adjust to climate Urine should be light yellow color Treatment for Stroke Lower core temp 5 Know what issues to consider when developing your emergency management plan Locations of phones ambulance access to venue emergency access to equipment Primary concern is maintaining cardiovascular and CNS functioning Key to emergency aid is the initial evaluation of the injured patient Members of sports medicine team must at all times act reasonably and prudently Must have a prearranged plan that can be implemented on a moments notice 6 Know about spine boarding Separate plans should be made for separate facilities Spine boarding maintain position of head and neck 4 5 people to perform technique EMS should be contacted if this will be required Must maintain head and neck in alignment of long axis of the body One person must be responsible for head and neck at all times Primary emergency care must be provided to maintain breathing treating for shock and maintaining position of athlete Permission should be given to transport by physician If patient is a football player helmet must stay in place with face mask removed Head and neck are stabilized with strapping Again requires 4 5 people captain responsible for head and neck 2 others Trunk and limbs are secured If patient is supine straddle slide method can be used for trunk and limbs and 4th to slide the board 7 Know basics of strength training Strength ability to generate force against resistance Power is the relationship between strength and time Muscular endurance repetitive muscular contractions increase strength increase endurance Strength training improvements in strength are made by progressive overload SAID principle specific adaptations impose demands youth should not lift any weight only use own body weight 8 Why do we use RICES Rest Ice Compression Elevation acute stages of injury to control pain and swelling reduces recover time How many lbs are the safest to lose per week 9 1 2 lbs per week 10 What is the purpose of the preseason physical exam safety of athlete rule out unqualifying conditions 11 Know the steps in performing an injury evaluations HOPS mechanism of injury HOPS history observation palpation special treatments ligament stability Mechanism of injury the way the injury occurred key to understanding how to do an evaluation and initial treatment Obtain subjective information relative to how injury occurred extent of injury History MOI Inquire about previous injuries illnesses that may be involved as well as past treatments Ask the following questions What is the problem How and when did it occur Did you hear or feel something Which direction did the joint move Characterize the pain Observations Asymmetries postural mal alignments or deformities How does the athlete move Is there a limp Are movements abnormal What is the body position Facial expressions Abnormal sounds Swelling heat redness inflammation swelling or discoloration Palpation Bony soft tissue Special Tests Used to detect specific pathologies Compare inert and contractile tissues and their integrity Assessment should be made bilaterally Range of Motion Assessment Active Passive Normal vs Abnormal end points Manual muscle tests Goniometric measures vs Digital inclinometers 12 Know signs and symptoms of inflammation Redness Swelling Warmth Pain Dysfunction 13 Know the aspects of the primary and secondary surveys Performed initially to establish presence of life threatening condition Airway breathing circulation shock and severe bleeding Used to correct life threatening conditions Primary survey Secondary survey Life threatening condition ruled out Gather specific information about injury Assess vital signs and perform more detailed evaluation of conditions that do not pose life threatening consequences 14 Why should you treat epiphyseal injuries special They are the growth plates in children and can affect the growth of extremeties 15 Know the components of SOAP method of record keeping S Subjective What athlete tells trainer O Objective What the trainer sees A Assessment What trainer decides P Plan Trainer s plan to deal with injury Ice x ray refer to doctor 16 Know about muscle fiber types and how you acquire them Fast twitch Sprint activities don t use O2 Slow twitch Use O2 long

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