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Midterm 3 Biopsych5-14-13 2 views of sleepo 1. Sleep as an analog of death (Hesoid – “sleep is the brother of death”)o 2. Sleep is a special form of mental activity. Arousal continuum o Hyper-arousal (mania)o Optimal Alertnesso Drowsyo Light sleepo Deep sleep These first five are normalo Comatose Non-invasive techniques are used to discover that sleep is in fact very important.o EEG (electroencephalogram) Electrical activity of the braino EOG (Electrooculogram) Measures eye activityo EMG (electromyogram) Measures muscle activity Types of EEG patterns:o Alert Low voltage, low amplitude, high frequency and random.o Deep sleep The wave becomes longer, high amplitude/ slow frequency Dement and Kleitmano Did a study in sleep and found that when a subject is in the deepest state of sleep the cortical activity resembles a waking state.o Awakeo Slow wave sleep and Rapid Eye movement are when asleep.o Slow wave sleep function is to restore body strengtho REM: restore arousal strength of the nervous system Sleep Deprivationo Make up slow wave sleep firsto Make up REM afterwards Dreamso REM cycles last 15 mins and dreams seem to coincide with real time.5-15-13- In the spinal cord the alpha motor neurons actively inhibit.- If not inhibited then people experience sleep walking and sleep talking whichare not REM events. Slow Wave Sleep- Muscles are relaxed but activity is present- Parasympathetic activity dominates - ~50% dream (stages 3+4) *not going to ask about this REMo Loss of muscle toneo Decreased ability to regulate body tempo Increased threshold for arousal by external stimuli: more difficult to wake up to your alarm.o Decreased threshold for internal arousalo If you wake some one up during REM, ~70-90% of people recall dreamso Penile erection is commono REM occurs 4-8 episodes, every 90mins and lasts about 15minso Oxygen consumption During REM the brain consumes more oxygen than during intense physical or mental exercise REM sleep present in all mammals except ant eaters and birds Some Facts about REMo 10 week premature infant ~80% REM (sleep time)o Normal Infant ~50% of 16hrs sleep in REMo Age 2 30-35% REMo Age 10 25% REMo *Shows a decreasing trend as you get oldero Daytime mental activity correlates with REMo Senility correlates with REM as it goes down as you become senile.o REM is a good predictor of if someone is going to awake from comatose.o REM does not correlate with IQ in general populationo During REM the brain reorganizes information that occurred during the dayo Francis Crick- co-discovered DNA, said that “if you remember your dreams you retain a lot of ‘junk’.”o Learning correlates with REM “Flower pot” technique When cat enters REM it falls into the water so it wakes up and never enters REM, note REM sleep is when you lose musclecontrol, so the cat loses control and slips into the water, waking it back up. 4-7 days of REM deprivation- Humans:o Increased tension and anxietyo Memory deficito Increased hostility/irritabilityo Increased Hungero Increased hallucination to photic stimulation- Cats:o Increased Avoidance behavioro Memory deficito Increased aggression/ sex. Behavioro Increase in pain sensitivity Called Hyperalgesia (pain sensitivity) Decrease in seizure REM Rebound See picture in notebook Note that a schizophrenic does not rebound- JA Hall (Catalog over 10,000 dreams)o Found that 64% were about sadness, apprehensive, angero 18% -> happyo 1% -> sexo *READ ABOUT SLEEP DISORDERS Brain Mechanisms “Ontogery recapitulates Phylogeny” REM sleep likely to lie in the brainstem SEE PICTURE *Know the cuts there will be a question on this When transection of Encephale Isole the animal shows normal sleep/wake pattern – meaning that you don’t need information from the spinal cord to sleep. Cerveau Isole – the animal was in constant slow wave sleep (the sleep wake cycle must be in the brainstem) Midpontive Section (the animal was in permanent awake state) Sleep Center – 5-HT (serotonin) in raphe nucleus is part of this sleep center Awake center (Norepinephrine (NE) in locus cerilius) 5-16-13 Sleep Movie- Sleeping can enhance your memories, and those who do not get sleep have trouble memorizing things.- Practice with a night of sleep can make you perfect.- If you have a good night of sleep you will actually do better.- Finding for 4 hours of sleep a night, each day starts to damage your ability to function.- There’s little to no rescue except for sleep.- Micro-sleeps can occur well driving and are a major cause of car accidents.- Some major disasters like 3 mile island, Chernobyl are all possibly caused by sleep deprivation- People who are chronically sleep deprived think that they can handle driving,like a drunk driver, even though they fail simple tests- College students deprived of sleep for 35 hrs.o Showed them mutilated pictures, and the amygdala reacted far more strongly then normal sleep patients. They were more emotional, because the seat of reason wasn’t as active.- The lack of sleep may be contributing to the obesity in the country because ofthe hormone lepton. Which tells us to eat more and more.- Soon after you enter sleep, delta waves tell you that you are about to enter deep sleep.- Light to deep sleep to rem.- As we age the amount of time we spend in rem sleep decreases.- Lack of sleep can lead to diabetes.o People eat more, age quicker, become less alert and their metabolism slows down.- Sleep also affects sexo A male fruit fly will not be as motivated to mate with the female.o As tested not a single fruit fly who didn’t sleep mated.- Naps might be required as well.- Deprivator, some machine that scientists put fruit flies into to keep them from sleep.o So they try and catch up on lost sleep.- Essential to all organisms- Mushroom body, part of the fruit flies brain, found that it controls sleep.- Well you sleep your brain is reviewing what you learned.- Sleep makes you better at certain tasks, like the typing one with the numbers.- Wilson uses electrodes to monitor the hippocampus of rats, the hippocampusis important for mammal sleep.o Then had them run a maze and the memories in sleep related to the the maze they were running.o The neocortex is important for long term memory- Animals and humans are trying to learn from past experiences during sleep5-17-13Psych Review SessionChapter 12 -> 13- Hypothalamus

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UW PSYCH 202 - Midterm 3

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