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1. Describe the structure, function and metabolic pathways that occur inthe mitochondrion; include outer membrane, inner membrane, and matrix.Structure:- Smooth outer membrane, surrounding a folded inner membrane- The folds are called cristae (increase surface area)- Intermembrane space (compartment between membranes)- Matrix (interior of the mitochondria)Function:- ATP production- Cellular respirationMitochondrion Matrix:- Cellular respiration occurs here: pyruvate (a product of glycolysis in the cytosol) is converted to CO2 and H2O- Site of the Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle), whereby the electron transport Chain is used to set up a proton gradient between the inner and outer membrane of the mitochondria (known as the intermembrane space). The protons accumulate in the intermembrane space to a point that the concentration gradient causes the protons to flow back into the matrix. Inner Membrane:- It is studded with proteins necessary for the Electron Transport Chain- Upon reentering the matric, the H+ go through the ATP synthase, which in turn powers the synthase to phosphorylate ADP to ATP- This membrane is folded (cristae) to allow for a greater surface area to utilize for the Electron Transport ChainOuter Membrane:- Consists of a phospholipid bilayer laced throughout with integral proteins- It is permeable and allows for water, ions, and some proteins to flow freely into the intermembrane space2. Describe electron transport chains in the mitochondrion. What do they produce? What must they have in order to function? What happensto humans when this works improperly?Produce:- 32-34 ATP- H2O- NAD+- FADNeeded:- NADH- FADH2- Oxygen- Protein complexes- Mobile electron carriers- Transportation of H+ ions across the membrane- ATP synthaseMalfunctions:- Rotenone – binds tightly with one of the electron carrier molecules in the first protein complex, preventing electrons form passing to the next carrier molecules; this prevents ATP synthesis; rotenone literallystarves an organism’s cells of energy; often used to kill pest insects and fish- Cyanide & Carbon Monoxide – bind to an electron carrier in the fourthprotein complex, where they block the passage of electrons to oxygen;therefore no H+ gradient is generated and no ATP is made- Antibiotic Oligomycin – inhibits ATP synthase; blocks the passage of H+ through the channel in ATP synthase; this drug doesn’t harm human cells because it cannot get through our outer layer of dead skincells- Uncouplers – make the membrane of the mitochondrion leaky to H+ ions; electron transport continues normally, but ATP cannot be made because leakage of H+ through the membrane destroys the H+ gradient- DNP (highly toxic uncoupler) - all steps of cellular respiration except chemiosmosis continue to run, even though almost all the energy is lost as heat; creates an enormous increase in metabolic rate, profusesweating as the body attempts to dissipate excess heat, and finally

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PhilaU BIOL 103 - Notes

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