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SOC 100 Final Study GuideChapters 9, 11, & 14 The final will consist of 60 questions, 50 from the last quarter of the course, 10 from major points discussed earlier in the course. The latter will include major concepts/ideas that we have covered previously—sociological perspectives, ethnocentristm, role conflict/strain, etc. You should do well on these 10 questions by perusing your notes, not rereading the text. Be sure to read the relevant articles posted on RamCT except for “Mirror Mirror on the Wall.”Ch. 9 Global Stratification - Relative vs. absolute poverty (Pg. 230)o Relative: Some people lack resources that are taken for granted by others. Exists in every society, rich or poor People living in rich countries generally focus on thiso Absolute: A lack of resources that is life threatening.  People lack the nutrition necessary for long-term survival  Affects more people in poorer countries  People die younger  Greatest in Africa (27% is malnourished)- Which are the rich countries? Poor ones? What’s happened to the gap between the rich and poor countries over the past 100 years?o The gap has only gotten bigger (28 times)- Starvation (Pg. 231)o In world, 13% of people suffer from chronic hunger o Every 2 seconds 1 person dies of hungero Every minute, 29 people dieo Every hour, 1712 people dieo Every day, 40,000 people dieo Every year 15 million people die o The loss of life due to poor nutrition every 5 years surpasses the death toll from war, revolution, and murder during the last 150 years- Correlates of 3rd world poverty? (i.e., explanations of global poverty (Pg. 233)o Inadequate technologyo Population growtho Cultural patternso Social stratification o Gender inequalityo Global power relationships - Theories—modernization vs. dependency. What is the role of the rich nations according to each theory?(Pg. 234)o Modernization Theory: a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality interms of technological and cultural differences between nations Follows the structural-functional approached  Not every society wants to adopt new technology Tradition is the greatest barrier to economic development Four stages of modernization:- Traditional stageo Life is built around families and local communitieso Ife is rich in spirituality but lacking in material goods- Take-off stageo Shake off idea of tradition and start to use their talents and imagination which sparks economic growth- Drive to technological maturityo Growth is acceptedo Absolute poverty is greatly reduced- High mass consumptiono People learn to “need” the expanding array of goods  The role of rich nations:- Controlling population increase- Increasing food production- Introducing industrial technology- Providing foreign aido Dependency Theory: a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones  Follows social-conflict approach Makes low-income countries dependent on high-income countries  Nations become rich because of poor nations  Result of the global economic system  Neocolonialism is the heart of the capitalist world economy  Wallerstein’sr capitalist world economy- The world economy benefits rich societies (by generating profits for them) and harms the rest of the world (by causing poverty)- The world economy thus makes poor nations dependent on rich ones.- The dependency involves three factors:o Narrow, export-oriented economies Poor nations develop few industries of their owno Lack of industrial capacity Poor nations try to sell rich nations their inexpensive raw materials, and they must also try to buy expensive manufactures goods from the rich nationso Foreign debt  Poor countries are high in debt to rich nations The role of rich nations: - Rich nations are to lame for global poverty- Who are the new colonists (i.e., neo-colonialism)? (Pg. 234)o Neo-colonialism: a new form of global power relationships that involves not direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational corporationso Multinational corporation: a large business that operates in many countriesCh. 11 Race and Ethnicity (Majorities/Minorities) - Definition/characteristics of minorities/majorities? (Pg. 277)o Minorities: any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates  Characteristics:- Distinctive identity- Subordination- Difference between prejudice and discrimination. Should we discriminate? (Pg. 278)o Prejudice: a rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people.  All people in some category are described as the same, based on little or no direct evidence Stereotype is a type of prejudiceo Discrimination: unequal treatment of various categories of peopleo Prejudice refers to attitudes; discrimination is a matter of actiono They are involved in a vicious cycleo Should we discriminate? Yes- Forms of majority/minority relationships (i.e., A+B+C=) (Pg. 282)o Pluralism A + B + C = A + B + C A state in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing US is pluralistic by law but in reality not because:- Few want to live exclusively with others exactly like themselves- Our tolerance for social diversity can only go so far- People of various cultures and colors do not have equal social standing o Assimilation A + B + C= A The process by which minorities gradually adopt patters of the dominant culture  Involves changes in ethnicity but not in raceo Melting pot A + B + C = D “Melting” into a new cultural patterno Segregation A + B+ C = A/B/C The physical and social separation of categories of people Although it declines, it is still in the USo Genocide/deportation A + B+ C+ = A The systematic killing of one category of people by another- Institutional discrimination (Pg. 282)o Institutional prejudice and discrimination: bias built into the operation of society’s institutions  Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka- Ended legal segregation in US schools- Still most US students attend schools where one race is dominant - What is microaggression?o A theory that hypothesizes that specific interactions between those of different races, cultures, or genders can be interpreted as small acts of mostly non-physical aggression- In what important way are

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CSU SOC 100 - Final Study Guide

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