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SOC 100 (Brouillette) Final ExamChapter 11- Race: a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important. - It is a social definition that is classified by physical characteristics. - Knowing a person’s race gives us no information about them; however, they create a hierarchy- Ethnicity: a shared cultural heritage that is based on common ancestry, language, and religion. - Based on cultural traits.- Minorities: any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates.- Can be based on ethnicity, race, or both. - By 2042, minorities are likely to form a majority in the U.S. - Two important characteristics of minorities:o Distinctive identity Based on physical or cultural traitso Subordination Placing them in a lower social rank - Prejudice: a rigid and unfair generalization, that can be positive or negative, about an entire category of people- Stereotype: a simplified description applied to every person in some category - Example: minorities are viewed as incompetent in comparison to majorities in the work place -Bogardus Social Distance Research - A way to measure prejudice that indicates that today’s students tend to see fewer differences between various categories of people. - Example: the terrorist attacks of 9/11 reduced social acceptance of Arabs and Muslims - Racism: the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another. - Theories of prejudice: - Scapegoat Theoryo A person, or a category of people, typically with little power, whom people unfairly blame for their troubles.- Authoritarian Personality Theoryo The idea that some people are naturally better (like themselves) than the weaker (minorities).- Culture Theoryo Prejudice is found in everyone and a part of culture.- Conflict Theory o Prejudice is a tool used by powerful people to oppress others. - Discrimination: unequal treatment (positive or negative) of various categories of people.- Institutional Prejudice and Discrimination: bias built into the operation of society’sinstitutions (including schools, hospitals, etc.). - Prejudice and discrimination reinforce each other (the vicious circle).- Pluralism: a stage in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing. - The U.S. is not completely pluralistic. - Assimilation: the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture. - Miscegenation: reproduction by partners of different racial categories. It is becoming more common.- Segregation: the physical and social separation of categories of people- Although cleaning, still continues - Genocide: the systematic killing of one category of people by another - Continues in modern world.- Social standings in the U.S.- Highest Income: Chinese.- % Poverty: Native Americans.- College Education: Korean.- The elderly can be seen as a minority. - The age group with the most poverty is 18 and younger. - True or false: - FALSE: The elderly are always sick; most are in nursing homes. - FALSE: The elderly are dangerous drivers and have a lot of wrecks. - FALSE: The elderly are inefficient employees. - FALSE: The elderly are not politically active. - FALSE: The elderly cannot adapt to new working conditions. - What age group is least likely to vote? (What class thinks)- 18-21 year olds- Functionalist Perspective - The disengagement theory is the idea that society enhances its orderly operation by disengaging people from positions of responsibility as they reach old age. - Symbolic Interaction Perspective - The activity theory is the idea that a high level of activity enhances personal satisfaction in old age. - Conflict Perspective- Aging is problematic in contemporary capitalistic societies - As people grow older, their power tends to diminish unless they are able to maintain wealth. - What is the best time of your life (by age)?- Age 18-29: 20’s- Age 30-44: 30’s- Age 45-59: 20’s- 60+: Retirement Chapter 12- Social institutions: major spheres of social life or societal subsystems organized to meet human needs. - Everything it takes to meet the major needs of society. - The economy is a social institution that organizes a society’s production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. - Basic social needs- Care for children; assure that the society has the appropriate number of people. - Transmit cultural knowledge to the young- Share community vales and solidarity- Take care of sick people; prevent illness and injury- Produce and distribute goods and services; provide employment- Distribute power; maintain order- Defend against enemies of the state- How society attempts to meet its basic social needs- Replace members (family)- Teach new members (education)- Produce, distribute goods (economy) - Take care of the sick (health)- Preserve order (political)- Sectors of the economy- Primary:o The extraction of raw materials and natural resources from the environment.o Agriculture, raising animals, fishing, forestry, and mining.- Secondary:o The processing of raw materials (from the primary sector) into finished goods.o Industrialization o Refining petroleum into gasoline and turning metals into tools and automobiles.- Tertiary:o The provision of services rather than goods. o Food services, secretarial and clerical jobs, health care, etc. - As countries become richer, the primary sector becomes a smaller part of theeconomy and the tertiary, or service sector, becomes larger.- Economy in the U.S.o 1900: primary was most commono 1955: secondary was most commono 2010: tertiary was most common- Compared to a century ago, when the economy involved a larger share of factory and farm work, making a living in the United States now involves mostly white-collar service jobs. - Capitalism: an economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are privately owned.- A ideal capitalist economy has three distinctive features:o Private ownershipo Pursuit of personal profito Competition and consumer choice - Socialism: an economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are collectively owned. - An ideal socialists economy has three distinctive features:o Collective ownership of propertyo Pursuit of collective goalso Government control of the economy - Capitalist’s societies have a higher gross domestic product, a higher ratio

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CSU SOC 100 - Final Exam

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