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SOC Lecture 3 Notes - HIV/ Aidso 35 million people living with HIV/AIDS o 18 million of those are women (about 50%) o Children living with HIV/AIDS (3.3 million) - Media Representationso Slow to pick up on HIV/AIDS  Magic Johnson (African American, Straight)  Still wealthy, doing well, viewed as healthy o Have the mindset that if Johnson is doing fine with AIDS, everyone is  Have to look at the status they are in (wealth) o African Americans (Women)  Problem is in Africa, but have to look at US as well- Worldwide Trendso 1997-2010: Annual new HIV infections fell by 21 percent o 2010: New Infections 15 percent less 2001 21 percent less than the number of new infections in 1997, the peak of the epidemic o The rate of HIV infection is falling in 33 countrieso HIV rates are going down- US Epidemico Annual number of new infections- 50,000 Remained relatively stable since the 1990’s TopHat: Does HIV/AIDS remain a major problem in the U.S.? - Yes but declining  Who does the stable rate impact- Disease is not distributed equally across the economy - Highest with white men having sex with men- However, there is more white men in society than black men o Numbers are misleading o Prevalence Rate African American Men at the highest risk - Then Hispanic, and then white  Talking about issues in povertyo Every nine and half minutes, somewhere in America, someone is infected with HIV. o Half of them are black o AIDS is the leading cause of death for African American women ages 25-34 Is this a social problem Leading cause of death o African American men are 6 times more likely to become infected than other men o Rates of death from AIDS is 10 times higher for black Americans than for whites o If Black America was a country, it would have the 16th highest HIV infection rate in the worldo In Washington DC, the prevalence of HIV is higher than most African countries (3.2%) o African American HIV Changing graph 1980s Blacks shot ahead of Whites  Endgame film - Culture conditions in San Francisco and Oakland- African Gay community compared to White gay community - Economic/ Political/Social Condition o Culture Silence, Shame, Stigma Suspicions and fears  Thought that government put the disease into America o Employment rates/poverty  More people are vulnerable  Vulnerable women, don’t have occupations (prostitutes)o Crack epidemic  Major impact on spread of HIV/AIDSo Prison Low economic opportunities More and more men going to jail- Are not a lot of men left in the community for potential partners- Women competing for partners, willing to do more to get the guy - Affects spread MTM and MTF o Not protected o Come back into the community with the disease o Drug Paraphernalia Act Arrested for carrying needles (drug paraphernalia)- Drug user=should go to jail  No longer able to carry your own needles, using other people’s needles - Purpose was to stop drug useo Latent function: leads people to contract AIDS o Lack of access to care  Poverty vs non poverty situations o Global number of people living with HIV by year o What are the consequences of people with HIV having children? Children being orphans Poverty o Population is declining Education declining Poverty increasing Food is declining - Children go into unsafe territoryo Fight in wars to get food and shelter o Understanding the Spread of HIV in Africa o Theory Central dynamic: labor intensive farming requires large families- Need another worker, just have another kid - Economic and political partyo Core nations exploit peripheral nations for their own profit Central effect: Fertility vs. chastity; polygamy vs monogamy- What you value: polygamy supplies more kids - It is okay to have multiple partners- Need to work the land in order to survive- Economic and political partyo Multinational corporations create only low wage jobs, extracting raw materials in a few, centralized locations  Social consequence: multiple sexual partners- Economic and political partyo Men leave farms to seek work, and visit prostitutes. Women cants survive on the farms and vulnerable to sex transactions Health effect: HIV spreads- Economic and political partyo HIV spreads o See spread of HIV just on the truck routes in Africa Prostitutes and truck drivers meet - Impacting women more than men o More and more women are becoming infected with HIV/ AIDS  Causes of Feminization of HIV- Gender Inequality o Differential access to literacy and educationo Child care responsibility; limit economic opportunities o Early marriage: school dropout and relationship powero Restricted mobility o Barriers in accessing HIV prevention and treatmento Denial of property and inheritance rights- Violenceo Threats disallow healthy sexual decision makingo Sexual abuse in childhood and forced sex- Cultural practices o Having sex with relative of passed spouse (widow cleansing)  Solutions: “ABC”- Abstinence, Be Faithful, and Condom Use o Focus on the individuals as the site for intervention Abstinence is meaningless in the face of coercion and poverty Faithfulness offers little protection to wives whose husbands have several partners or were infected beforemarriage Condoms require the cooperation of men- Gender, Economics, Migration  Solutions: GEM: Gender- Gender specific and gender empowering HIV prevention effortso Condom use is embedded within power relations  Woman’s monogamy doesn’t guarantee safety Alternative sex Focus on negotiation skillso Gendered sexual scripts Masculinity - Economicso Economic and Educational Contexts and Structural Interventions Economic disparities by sex increase the likelihood of unsafe sex  Trade money or food for sex  Recognize contexts that prioritize boys educational achievement over girls- Girls often pulled out of school to care for sick family members- Mom or Dad come down with HIV/AIDS  Address role of transactional sex relationships - Migrationo Migration and Population Movements o Increases risk of HIV/AIDS as people travel outo Not just males, but also female migrants  Domestic jobs with high levels of gender inequality and sexual violence o “Bridge model”: interconnected pathways - Crime and Prison o 2012 Violent crime occurs every 26 seconds  What are the problems with these estimates- Fear, location, overestimate, accuracy o Crime rates overtime are decreasing  Legal offenses

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KU SOC 160 - Lecture 3 Notes

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