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Coms 130 Midterm ReviewCivic Engagement: Being responsible, paying attention to news, attending public meetings, working for political causes, signing petitions, writing to elected representatives, speaking at political meetings Ethical Speaking: telling the truth and being responsible for what you say5 Canons of Public Speaking:- Invention: Analyzing topic, identifying key issues/main points, searching for suitable evidence/support material - Arrangement: previews, easily identifiable main points, transitions, introduction, conclusion - Style: Encompasses the use of language - Memory: Commit to memory the ideas of your speech, structure of those ideas, key transition points - Delivery: engaging delivery is key to a strong speech Key Terms:- Plagiarism: Taking all of part of your speech from a source without proper attribution - Paraphrasing: summarizing or restating another person’s ideas in your own words- Demagoguery: A speaker who is purposefully deceptive or manipulative - Public Deliberation: Coming together to talk about common problems - Hate Speech: intentionally offensive - Isometric Exercise: tensing and then relaxing specific muscles, useful relaxation technique - Aerobic Exercise: walking jogging, running, reduces tension- Active Listening: Listening to other speakers to draw attention away from your own anxieties and may give you ideas for last minute changes- Target Audience: a certain demographic group the speaker is trying to get to or their “ideal” audience - Saliency: personal relevance - Gender Identity: One’s sense of sexual identity, of male and female tendencies and characteristics, as shaped by social norms or expectations - Socially Constructed: The process by which roles and behaviors are determined as appropriate in different cultures - Racism: belief in superiority or inferiority of particular races- Ethnocentrism: belief that one’s own ethnic heritage is superior to all others - Brainstorming: writing down anything that comes to mind under a particular category - Objectivity: entirely neutral toward toward a topic we know and care about - General Purpose: informative, persuasive, ceremonial - Specific Purpose: ultimate response the speaker hopes to achieve- Thesis Statement: declarative statement that sums up your speech - Information Literacy: ability to recognize when information is needed and to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information - Supporting Material: evidence to support idea - Personal Testimony: personal opinions, interpretations, and judgments- Lay Testimony: based on experience that is not your own or an experts - Expert Testimony: experts experience, opinions- Working Outline: develop while brainstorming - Formal Outline: full sentence representation of speech - Key Word Outline: Ex. Notecards, abbreviated formal outline to remind you of key points - Denotative: literal meaning of word- Connotative: emotional implications word may suggest - Sensory Appeals: audience members are encouraged to see, hear, or feel something - Figures of Speech: heighten the beauty of expression or clarity of ideas or emotional impact of speeches- Clichés: overused expressions - Technical Language: Ex. Chemistry language, computer language, anatomy language - Gendered Language: typically language that excludes women, has negative effects on those excludedTrait Anxiety: speaking anxiety no matter what context, topic, or audienceState Anxiety: particular set of circumstances triggers communication apprehension Communication Apprehension Causes: particular audience (size, importance, group focus/beliefs), setting (small, large, indoor, outdoor, temperature) Manage Speaking Apprehension: be well prepared, develop positive attitude, practice, anticipate situationAudience Demographics: Age, gender, race & ethnicity, intercultural factors, religion, geographical/cultural environment, Education, occupation or profession, economic status. You need to be aware so you don’t come across as offensive Maslow’s Hierarchy: listeners will be more engaged by appealing to their higher needs. Ensure listener’s personal safety, reinforce feelings of love and sense of belonging, helping listeners feel appreciated by others, helping listeners realize their own potential, identifying audience values- Physiological needs—food, shelter- Safety needs—stability, security - Belonging needs—love, acceptance- Esteem need—status, self-worth - Self-actualization needs—achievement, self-improvement Patterns of Organization- Chronological/Sequential: Step by step, order of events- Spatial: by geography - Categorical: emphasizes distinct topics, types, forms, qualities, or aspects of the speech subject - Climatic: sequence from simple to difficult - Casual: cause and effect - Problem-Solution: identify problem, propose solution- NarrativeFour Functions: - Sharing Ideas and Information- Raising Awareness- Articulating AlternativesFour Types: - Description: describe place, event, or person- Demonstration: aim to teach audience how something works - Explanation: help audience understand abstract, complicated, or unfamiliar things - Informative: technical to inform organization of recent events, discoveries, or other vital

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