UW-Madison PSYCH 560 - Chapter 11: Attachment to Others and Development of Self

Unformatted text preview:

Chapter 11: Attachment to Others and Development of SelfI. The Caregiver-Child Attachment RelationshipA. Harry Harlow’s Rhesus Monkeys1) Experimental designa) Baby monkeys raised healthily but in isolationb) Compared experimental group’s outcomes to control group (raised with mother)2) Resultsa) Isolated monkeys incapable of interacting with other monkeys through communication or learningb) Adult females who were isolated growing up did not parent their childrenB. Attachment Theory1) Bowlby’s Attachment Theorya) John Bowlby & Mary Ainsworthb) Infant uses parent as safe haven or secure base from which to explore the worldc) Stages of attachment development(i) Preattachment- Birth – 6 weeks- Infant produces signals (crying) to communicate to caregivers, by whom the infant is comforted(ii) Attachment-in-the-making- 6 weeks – 7 months- Infants prefer familiar people over unfamiliar people- Development of trust (or lack thereof) depending on caregiver’s response to infant’s actions(iii) Clear-cut attachment- 7 months – 18 months- May exhibit separation anxiety- Caregiver (usually mother) serves as secure base(iv)Reciprocal relationships- 18 months and older- Understanding of parents’ goals, motives, feelings- Child develops fluid partnership with parents- Decrease in separation anxietyd) Internal working model of attachment(i) Mental representation of self, attachment figures, and relationships in general(ii) Based on dependability of and security provided by caregiver(iii) Initial models of attachment influence the type of relationship a child seeks once he or she grows up- Influence overall adjustment, social behavior, perceptions of others, and self-esteem2) Ainsworth’s Researcha) Quality of attachment from infant to caregiver measured by:(i) Extent to which an infant uses his or her caregiver as a secure base(ii) Infant’s reactions to brief separations from and reunions with caregiverC. Measurement of Attachment Security in Infancy1) Strange Situationa) Test conducted by Ainsworth to measure security of infant’s attachment to caregiverb) Consists of seven “episodes” of slightly varied environmental situations, all of which last 3 minutesc) Attachment categories(i) Secure attachment- Use mother as secure base from which to explore- Usually display mild distress when mother leaves- Greet mother when she returns- 62-68% of middle-class toddlers- <50% of lower-class toddlers(ii) Insecure attachment- Insecure/resistant Aka ambivalent Cling to mother Display moderate to severe distress when mother leaves Run to mother to be comforted when she returns, but immediately switch to avoiding all acts of comfort 9% of middle-class toddlers in the U.S.- Insecure/avoidant Avoid mother throughout experiment Don’t greet mother when she returns Ignore mother while she is in the room 15% of middle-class toddlers(iii) Disorganized/disoriented- Disorganized behavior- No consistent method of coping with stress- Can’t decide whether or not they go towards or away from mother- 15% of middle-class toddlers in the U.S.- Higher percentage among maltreated toddlers or those with a lower SESD. Cultural Variations in Attachment1) Relatively little variation in percentages of infants in each category across cultures2) There is noticeable variation in some contextsa) Japanese and American babies exhibit approximately same percentage of securelyattached infants, but no Japanese babies exhibited insecure/avoidant attachmentb) Variation may also be to time period during which tests were conducted(i) Few children attended preschool in the 1980sE. Compliance1) Kochanska – toy experimenta) Experimental design(i) 2- and 3-year-olds told to put toys awayb) Results(i) Committed compliance(ii) Situational compliance- Need for additional prompting- Most common(iii) Defiance- Not at all compliant- 10% of childrenc) Implications(i) Test-retest reliability- Compliance is part of self(ii) Influence of parent-child relationship- Firm with rationale -> compliance Parents are reasonable -> committed compliance Parents are insensitive -> situational compliance- Threatening or criticizing -> defianceF. Factors Associated with the Security of Children’s Attachment1) Parental Sensitivitya) Degree to which parents are responsive to infant’s needs and desiresb) Exhibited through:(i) Consistently responsive caregiving(ii) Mutual smiling or laughing(iii) Coordinated playc) Mothers’ sensitivity plays much stronger role than fathers’ sensitivity2) Trends with Other Attachmentsa) Insecure/resistant infants(i) Mothers tend to not respond consistently(ii) Usually overwhelmed with the responsibilities of caregivingb) Insecure/avoidant infants(i) Mothers are emotionally distant and sometimes reject physical closenessc) Disorganized/disoriented infants(i) Sometimes exhibit frightening, abusive behaviors(ii) May be dealing with unresolved loss or trauma(iii) Around age 3 – 6, these children react to mother by:- Attempting to cheer her up- Acting in a hostile and aggressive manner3) Correlation versus causationa) Parental sensitivity and infantile attachment are correlated, not necessarily causalb) Interventions designed to enhance mothers’ sensitivity also increase strength of infants’ attachmentc) Difference in attachment between twins raised apart all due to environment, not genesG. Does Security of Attachment Have Long-Term Effects?1) Securely attached children tend to be better adjusted and possess more social skills than insecurely attached children2) Other associationsa) Sensitive parenting associated with secure attachment also leads to greater emotional expressionb) Securely attached children have closer relationships with peers than do insecurely attached childrenc) Securely attached children tend to have more positive peer and romantic relationships as an adolescent3) Stability versus consistencya) Attachment in toddlerhood predicts behavior and success in relationships, academics, etc. into adolescenceb) Poor parent-child relationships based on financial security, divorce, or other factors more subject to changec) Drastic shifts in mother’s behavior toward child can completely revolutionize child attachmentII. Conceptions of the SelfA. Definition of self1) Conceptual system composed of one’s thoughts and attitudes about oneself, physical, social, and mental/internalB. The Development of Conceptions of Self1) The Self in Infancya) Distinct at 8

View Full Document

UW-Madison PSYCH 560 - Chapter 11: Attachment to Others and Development of Self

Download Chapter 11: Attachment to Others and Development of Self
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...

Join to view Chapter 11: Attachment to Others and Development of Self and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Chapter 11: Attachment to Others and Development of Self 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.


By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?