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UW-Madison PSYCH 560 - Chapter 9: Theories of Social Development

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Chapter 9: Theories of Social DevelopmentI. Psychoanalytic TheoriesA. View of Children’s Nature1) Freuda) Behavior motivated by unconscious, basic drives2) Eriksona) Development arises from developmental crises related to biological maturationB. Central Developmental Issues1) Continuity vs. discontinuity2) Differences among individuals3) Nature vs. nurtureC. Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development1) Basic Features of Freud’s Theorya) Unconscious drives become focused in a particular area of the body(i) Those areas become erogenous zones for a period of time2) The Developmental Processa) Parts of the mind(i) Id- Most primitive desires- Pleasure principle Focuses on maximizing gratification- innate(ii) Ego- Develops towards end of first year of life- Reality principle Attempts to satisfy id while maintaining social and cultural regulationsof outside world- Develops into sense of self(iii) Superego- Conscience or moral compass- Reflects child’s internalization of parents’ standards of acceptable behaviorb) Stages(i) Oral- Birth – 1 year- Pleasure centered around mouth(ii) Anal- 1 – 2 years of age- Pleasure centered around bladder and bowels- Correlates with age of toilet training(iii) Phallic- 3 – 6 years of age- Pleasure centered around genitals- Gender identification- Oedipus/Electra complex Child identifies with same sex parent Child subconsciously desires to form a romantic relationship with theiropposite sex parent(iv)Latency- 6 ~ 12 years of age (puberty)- Lack of pleasure center(v) Genital- 12+ years of agec) Fixation(i) May occur if children’s needs are not met during a particular stage(ii) Results in stagnant developmentD. Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development1) The Developmental Processa) Trust vs. Mistrust(i) 0 – 1 years of age(ii) Infant develops ability to trust others or has difficulty forming intimate relationshipsb) Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt(i) 1 – 3.5 years of age(ii) Toddler develops self-esteem and self-control or doubt abilities and feel ashamedc) Initiative vs. Guilt(i) 4 – 6 years of age(ii) Child develops high standards and initiative to meet goals or feels guiltyd) Industry vs. Inferiority(i) 6 ~ 12 years of age (puberty)(ii) Child learns to be industrious and cooperate with others in order to feel competent or feels inadequatee) Identity vs. Role confusion(i) 12 – 20 years of age(ii) Child discovers their niche in life or feels lost about who they areE. Current Perspectives1) Minimal support regarding specific aspects of Freud’s and Erikson’s theories2) General concepts still applicable, though not necessarily correctII. Learning TheoriesA. View of Children’s Nature1) External factors shape personality2) Behavior motivated or extinguished by rewards and punishmentsB. Central Developmental Issues1) Lack qualitatively different stages2) Learning principles are mechanisms of changeC. Watson’s Behaviorism1) Little Albert experiment2) Systematic desensitizationa) Gradual exposure to a feared stimulus, resulting in extinguishing the fearD. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning1) Use of attention as a reinforcer2) Intermittent reinforceda) Produces most extinction-resistant behavior3) Behavior modificationa) Altering an existing behavior from undesirable or inappropriate to desirableE. Social Learning Theory1) Albert Banduraa) Bobo doll observational experimentb) More aggression in children if adult is not punished2) Children learn mainly through imitation of others’ behavior3) Reciprocal determinisma) Child’s characteristics leads them to seek certain environments, which in turn affect the child’s characteristics4) Perceived self-efficacya) One’s beliefs about how effectively he or she can control own thoughts, behaviors, and emotionsb) Perceived self-efficacy for affect regulationc) Perceived academic self-efficacyF. Current Perspectives1) Allow for experimental testing2) Very applicable3) Criticismsa) Doesn’t include biological effectsb) Doesn’t consider influences of cognition on behaviorIII. Theories of Social CognitionA. View of Children’s Nature1) Self-socializationa) Children’s active shaping of own developmentB. Central Developmental Issues1) Active child2) Individual differences3) Continuity perspectivea) Selman’s stage theory of role taking4) Discontinuity perspectivea) Dweck’s attributional account of academic achievementC. Selman’s Stage Theory of Role Taking1) Role takinga) Ability to adopt the perspective of another personb) Directly linked with theory of mind2) Stages of developmenta) 6 – 8 years of age:(i) Understand others can have other perspectives, but assume it is due to the fact that they do not possess the same information as the childb) 8 – 10 years of age:(i) Children can consider another’s point of viewc) 10 – 12 years of age:(i) Can compare other’s views to their own and assess two others’ points of viewd) 12+ years of age:(i) Compare another’s perspective by comparing to that of most people in their social groupD. Dodge’s Information-Processing Theory of Social Problem Solving1) Hostile attributional biasa) General expectation that others intend to do a child harmE. Dweck’s Theory of Self-Attributions and Achievement Motivation1) Incremental theory of intelligencea) Intelligence can be gained through effortb) Child with this view who fails works harder to achieve goal(i) Incremental/mastery orientation(ii) Base self-worth on effort and learning, not on judgment of others2) Entity theory of intelligencea) Intelligence is stagnant throughout lifetimeb) Child with this view who fails feels helpless(i) Entity/helpless orientation(ii) Base self-worth on success and praise3) Achievement Motivationa) Willingness to strive(i) Joy in mastery (<2 y.o.)(ii) Approval seeking (2-3 y.o.)- Motivation depends on others(iii) Implementation of own standards (3+)- Development of pride and shameb) Source of achievement motivation(i) Home life- Parental attachment- External stimulation – presence of opportunities on which to succeed- Authoritative parenting Firm, democratic, and supportive(ii) Peers- Support or reject achievement of childc) Attributing Achievement(i) Locus and Cause of Achievement- Internal, stable Attributed to ability- External, stable Attributed to difficulty of task- Internal, unstable Attributed to effort- External, unstable Attributed to luckd) Fostering Achievement(i) Attribution retaining- Failures due to unstable


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