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1 classical conditioning Psychology Test 2 Study online at quizlet com i1pvx studied by Ivan Pavlov unconditioned stimulus food conditioned stimulus footsteps unconditioned stimulus salvation conditioned stimulus salvation 2 unconditioned stimulus gives the natural response of the unconditioned response 3 conditioned response never as great as unconditioned response could be different or same as unconditioned response ex UCR nausea and CR dislike of a certain food 4 responses involuntary physiological or emotional 5 conditioned stimulus 6 extinction anything can become a conditioned stimulus as long as it is paired with an unconditioned stimulus if we stop pairing CS bell with UCS food then the CS loses its power and the CR drooling drops out 7 spontaneous recovery response comes back weaker and weaker each time if CS slowly stops 8 stimulus generalization idea that Pavlov demonstrated as the dog would drool not only at the sound of the bell but at the sound of any bell beep or buzzer similar to story with little Albert w loud noise and stuffed animal he would cry at anything white and fuzzy 21 learned helplessness 9 stimulus discrimination the example of dog only salivating to the one bell sound if other bells did not bring food 10 operative conditioning 11 law of effect 12 principle of reinforcement active responses are voluntary ex skinner box with hamster that accidentally presses lever classical responses are passive and involuntary such as an emotional or physiological responses also called instrumental learning Edward L Thorndike behaviors that bring about reward are repeated and behaviors that bring about punishment are dropped B F Skinner anything that follows response and makes you more likely to repeat it again we tend to repeat behaviors that get rewarded reinforcement consequences that strengthen responses primary and secondary reinforcers 13 primary reinforcer satisfy biological needs heat water easily used for children 14 secondary reinforcer satisfy acquired needs money grades attention used to satisfy primary needs 15 consequences of reinforcement and punishment increasing a response positive and negative reinforcement decreasing a response punishment 16 positive reinforcement response followed by a rewarding stimulus 17 negative reinforcement response followed by a removal of an adverse stimulus involves escape learning and avoidance learning 18 escape learning removing something aversive 19 avoidance learning 20 problems with punishment avoiding something unpleasant uses classical and operative conditioning fear anger resentment dislike avoidance can be felt toward punisher punishment is effective if it is immediate consistent and combined with reward learned helplessness could sometimes lead to abuse ex parents getting carried away danger of punishment ex dogs harnessed and shocked will not move after unharnessed danger people will give up 22 schedules of reinforcement continuous reinforcement intermittent partial reinforcement 23 continuous reinforcement every time the correct behavior occurs you provide reinforcement 24 intermittent partial reinforcement once behavior is obtained through continuous reinforcement you don t have to do it everytime anymore ratio schedules and interval schedules extinction will occur if reinforcement stops more resistant to extinction they are used to not getting it but if you stop a continuous cycle they could give up you can use extinction to change a behavior removing reinforcement will change a behavior 25 ratio schedules 34 intelligence capacity to engage in goal directed behavior adapt to new situations and good at problem solving Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon developed test to identify children who need special help Terman revised it to the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale which yield IQ 36 Intelligence Quotient Ratio method Stanford Binet Tests mental age chronological age x 100 Wechsler Tests based on number of responses fixed reinforcement occurs every certain number of times FR25 would be reinforcement every 25 times variable most common reinforcement occurs after a variable number of responses you don t know how many ex slot machine This is one of the most powerful and alluring schedules sales behavior cars is on this schedule for this reinforcement is based on effort you don t know when this will occur based on how much time has passed fixed reinforcement occurs after a fixed amount of time ex writing a paper with a fixed deadline There is no response until right before the time variable reinforcement is based on a variable amount of time you don t know ex fishing produces a consistent response rate but you don t work consistently 35 intelligence testing 37 Wechsler Tests 38 Advantages of Wechsler Tests 26 interval schedules 27 Shaping or Method of Approximations reinforce small steps along the way to get to desired goal occurs only in operative conditioning 28 social learning you do not receive reward or punishment you learn by observing others 39 Heredity and Environment Nature vs Nurture Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS ages 17 64 WISC for children ages 6 15 Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence WPPSI ages 4 6 broken down into sections verbal vocab comprehension math digit span memory performance don t need to know English for this block design picture arrangement object assembly used to discover learning disabilities test for gifted scores 130 and up Evidence for Heredity high degree of correlation between IQ scores of identical twins even if they were raised apart identical twins scored more closely than fraternal correlation of score between siblings even those who were adopted to different parents best predictor of baby s intelligence is intelligence level of parents educated parents will have smarter children Evidence for Environment deprived environment such as orphanages can have adverse affects First years are critical environment has greatest effect at extremes deprived or enriched Head start gains in IQ but did not last less likely to repeat a grade less adjustment issues 85 115 is average below 70 intellectual disabilities intellectual disabilities range from mild to profound score under 20 85 90 of cases are mild usually can read do math at 6th grade level and care for themselves 29 observational learning 30 modeling 31 bobo doll studies 32 most effective models that kids immitate 33 John Watson what kids learn from parents by observing ex aggression fears etc could carry to

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Villanova PSY 1000 - Test 2

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