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Psychology Test 21. classicalconditioning-studied by Ivan Pavlov-unconditioned stimulus (food)-conditioned stimulus (footsteps)-unconditioned stimulus (salvation-conditioned stimulus (salvation)2. unconditionedstimulusgives the natural response of theunconditioned response3. conditionedresponse-never as great as unconditioned response-could be different or same asunconditioned response. ex: UCR= nauseaand CR= dislike of a certain food4. responses -involuntary, physiological or emotional5. conditionedstimulusanything can become a conditionedstimulus as long as it is paired with anunconditioned stimulus6. extinction -if we stop pairing CS (bell) with UCS(food), then the CS loses its power and theCR (drooling) drops out7. spontaneousrecoveryresponse comes back weaker and weakereach time if CS slowly stops8. stimulusgeneralizationidea that Pavlov demonstrated as the dogwould drool not only at the sound of thebell, but at the sound of any bell, beep, orbuzzer (similar to story with little Albertw/loud noise and stuffed animal- he wouldcry at anything white and fuzzy)9. stimulusdiscriminationthe example of dog only salivating to theone bell sound if other bells did not bringfood10. operativeconditioning-active: responses are voluntary. ex: skinnerbox with hamster that accidentally presseslever-classical: responses are passive andinvoluntary, such as an emotional orphysiological responses-also called instrumental learning11. law of effect -Edward L. Thorndike-behaviors that bring about reward arerepeated and behaviors that bring aboutpunishment are dropped12. principle ofreinforcement-B.F. Skinner-anything that follows response and makesyou more likely to repeat it again-we tend to repeat behaviors that getrewarded-reinforcement consequences thatstrengthen responses: primary andsecondary reinforcers13. primaryreinforcer-satisfy biological needs (heat, water)-easily used for children14. secondaryreinforcer-satisfy acquired needs (money, grades,attention)-used to satisfy primary needs15. consequences ofreinforcementand punishment-increasing a response: positive andnegative reinforcement-decreasing a response: punishment16. positivereinforcementresponse followed by a rewardingstimulus17. negativereinforcement-response followed by a removal of anadverse stimulus-involves escape learning and avoidancelearning18. escape learning removing something aversive19. avoidancelearning-avoiding something unpleasant. -uses classical and operativeconditioning20. problems withpunishment-fear, anger, resentment, dislike,avoidance can be felt toward punisher-punishment is effective if it isimmediate, consistent, and combinedwith reward-learned helplessness-could sometimes lead to abuse. ex:parents getting carried away21. learnedhelplessness-danger of punishment.-ex: dogs harnessed and shocked willnot move after unharnessed-danger: people will give up.22. schedules ofreinforcement-continuous reinforcement-intermittent (partial) reinforcement23. continuousreinforcement-every time the correct behavior occurs,you provide reinforcement24. intermittent(partial)reinforcement-once behavior is obtained throughcontinuous reinforcement, you don'thave to do it everytime anymore-ratio schedules and interval schedules-extinction will occur if reinforcementstops-more resistant to extinction. they areused to not getting it, but if you stop acontinuous cycle, they could give up.-you can use extinction to change abehavior. removing reinforcement willchange a behavior.Psychology Test 2Study online at quizlet.com/_i1pvx25. ratio schedules -based on number of responses-fixed: reinforcement occurs every certainnumber of times. FR25 would bereinforcement every 25 times-variable: (most common) reinforcementoccurs after a variable number ofresponses. you don't know how many. ex:slot machine. This is one of the mostpowerful and alluring schedules. salesbehavior (cars) is on this schedule. forthis, reinforcement is based on effort. youdon't know when this will occur.26. intervalschedules-based on how much time has passed-fixed: reinforcement occurs after a fixedamount of time. ex: writing a paper with afixed deadline. There is no response untilright before the time-variable: reinforcement is based on avariable amount of time, you don't know.ex: fishing. produces a consistentresponse rate, but you don't workconsistently27. Shaping orMethod ofApproximations-reinforce small steps along the way to getto desired goal-occurs only in operative conditioning28. social learning -you do not receive reward or punishment,you learn by observing others29. observationallearning-what kids learn from parents byobserving.-ex: aggression, fears, etc. could carry totheir own marriage30. modeling -such as children who play with lawnmowers or toys to model parents31. bobo dollstudies-Albert Bandura and blow up clown thatstands when you hit it-children saw model punished for beatingup doll did not beat up doll-this concerns celebrities who are notpunished, making bad role models-consequence model receives determineswhether model is imitated. so if model isrewarded, you will most likely imitate. ifpunished, then you most likely don'timitate.32. most effectivemodels that kidsimmitate-powerful, rewarded for actions, havecontrol over resources-this is why kids will imitate parents overcelebrities--> celebrities have no resourcesfor the child33. John Watson -said you could shape baby to be anythingyou want it to be. -use classical conditioning, name, reward& punish certain behaviors, extinction(ignoring certain things), and modelling34. intelligence capacity to engage in goal directed behavior,adapt to new situations, and good at problemsolving35. intelligencetesting-Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon: developedtest to identify children who need special help-Terman: revised it to the "Stanford-BinetIntelligence Scale" which yield IQ36. IntelligenceQuotient-Ratio method (Stanford-Binet Tests): mentalage/chronological age x 100-Wechsler Tests37. WechslerTests-Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)ages 17-64-WISC for children ages 6-15-Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale ofIntelligence (WPPSI) ages 4-638. Advantagesof WechslerTests-broken down into sections: verbal (vocab,comprehension, math, digit span [memory]),performance (don't need to know English forthis: block design, picture arrangement, objectassembly)-used to discover learning disabilities-test for gifted (scores 130 and up)39. Heredity andEnvironment(Nature vs.Nurture)-Evidence for Heredity: high

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Villanova PSY 1000 - Test 2

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