BC FILM 2202 - Elements of Film Structure

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Elements of Film StructureStructure:  “film form”- Audiovisual design of a film- Techniques used to create a designContent:- Description of a film- Plotline, characters, theme, etc.Production Process1. Pre-Production- Writing a script, hiring cast/crew, design of sets, preparation of camera angle, rehearsal, etc.2. Production- Cinematography, sound recording, actual filming, etc.3. Post-Production- Editing of sound and image, composing the music score, visual effects, dialogue replacement, etc.- “digital grading”Director: control over structural and aesthetic details of the filmProducer: control over the schedule, budget, and administrative workBeta Movement: a rapid sequence of light will appear as only one sequence of light- 24 frames per secondTime- Running Time: duration of a filmo “feature films” = 90 to 120 minutes- Story Time: timeline of the story of a film- Internal Structural Time: duration of each shoto “tension and release”Space- Frame: dimension of the projected area on screeno “framing”/”composition”: arrangement of objects within a frame- Light can accentuate the shape, texture, and positioning of objectsCamera- Camera Positioning: distance between the camera and the subject it is photographingo Long shot  environment, setting, positioning in the scene “establishing shots”  beginning of a movieo Medium shot  closer look at characters with partial view of environment “one-shot”, “two-shot”, “three-shot”  shot dependent of number of peopleo Close-Up shot- Camera Angle: angle of the camera onto the objects, which depicts emotional responses from characterso “low angle”  below the subjecto “medium angle”/”eye-level”  even with the subjecto “high angle”  above the subjecto “canted angle”  tilted camera angle makes the world look off-kilterCamera Lens Different sized lenses can affect size of objects and depth within distances- Emulsion: the light-sensitive portion of a film- Focal Length: the distance between the film inside the camera and the optical center of the lenso Normal = 50mm focal length for 35 mm filmso Telephoto/Long focal = greater than the normal rangeo Wide angle/Short focal = smaller than the normal rangeo Zoom = variable Motion Parallax (“motion perspective”): a viewer believes that the camera is moving towards or away from a subject when in actuality the camera lens is just zooming in or out Rack Focusing: changing the lens focal plane within a shot- Foreground is blurry, background is clear- Background is blurry, foreground is clear- Angle of View: how much the focal length of a lens can seeo Shorter = increased angle of view = wider areao Longer = decreased angle of view = narrow area- Depth of Field: the amount from near to far that will remain in focuso Wide-angle = greater angle of view and depth of fieldo Telephoto = magnification of distant objects Stationary Capture- Pan: side to side movement- Tilt: up and down movement Moving Capture- Tracking/Dolly: parallel to the ground- Boom/Crane: up and down through spaceThe Camera and Human PerceptionPerceptual Transformation: the ability to show things differently than the ordinary visual experience- Telephoto and wide-angle lens show an image that the human eye cannot see- Fictional objects/customs are accepted by an audience as representative of a separate realityPerceptual Correspondence: the ability to show things in ways that reference/correspond with the ordinary visual


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BC FILM 2202 - Elements of Film Structure

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