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Sound DesignEvolution of Film SoundContemporary = multichannel- Sound Field: the acoustical area covered by speaker placement in a surround sound setup; activated by multichannel sound- Soundstage: the acoustical space established by the front speakers1930s—1970s = single channel- SOF (sound on film): the sound was recorded in an optical track on the film stripo Reduction in volume, limited frequency range, distortion of soundTypes of Sound- Dialogueo Speech: delivered by characters on screen in conversationo Voice-over: accompanies images but not delivered by a character within the scene Used mainly in noir filmso Production track: the sound recorded at the point of filmingo ADR (automated dialogue replacement): the sound RE-recorder by the actors in a sound studio post filming- Sound Effects  Physical non-speech sounds heard as part of the action and physical environment seen on screeno Ambient sound Naturally occurring, low level, produced by environment (traffic, birds, etc.) Sounds produced by specific actions (throwing a rock threw a window  glassbreaking) Room tone = the acoustical properties of a room itselfo Foley technique: live performance and recording of sound effects in synchronizationwith the picture- Music1. Spotting  the composer consults with director to view the final cut edit to determine where and when the music should be needed- Temp-track = a temporary musical track derived from another score, which the director asks the composer to create a new score of similar sound2. Cue Sheet  a detailed description of each scene’s action requiring music, plus the exact timings of each action3. Composing- Sequencers = allow the composer to lock the score onto the video’s digital time code4. Performance and Recording  the new composition is performed and recorder on a sound stage where the movie is also being shown- Streamers = line imprinted on the film or video to establish tempo within a scene, marking the beginning and end of each cueFunctions of Music1. Setting the Scene2. Adding Emotional Meaning3. Serving as Background Filler4. Creating Continuity- Leitmotif structure = a musical label associated with a particular character, place, idea, or emotion5. Emphasizing ClimaxesSound Designer = controls/edits/manipulates the sounds of a motion picture- Realistic Sounds: match the properties of a real source- Synthetic Sounds: have no counterpart in actual life, yet the bond with the images on screen (ex. E.T.)Differences between SOUND and IMAGE1. What viewers notice about pictures and sound2. How pictures and sound structure timeCodes of Sound Design- Sound hierarchyo Dialogue is most important factor- Sound perspective  designates the ways that sound conveys properties of the physical spaces seen on screeno Doppler Effect = as an object approaches or recedes the sound it makes changes depending on direction in order to convey movemento Direct Sound = comes immediately from the source; spoken into a microphone NO reverbo Reflected Sound = reflects off surround areas HAS reverb- Sound bridges  dialogue (or other sounds) transition between the passage of time, or one cut to another cut- Off-screen sound space  part of the dramatic action of a scene, but its source is off-camera (gunshot noise without the vision of the gun)o Diegetic sound = sound that occurs within the story world which the characters can hear (dialogue, ambient noise)o Non-Diegetic sound = sound that is not part of the story which characters are unaware of (music score, etc.)- Sound montage  the editing of sounds into highly intricate and complex patterns that create meaning and emotion for the

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BC FILM 2202 - Sound Design

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