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Sound Design Evolution of Film Sound Contemporary multichannel Types of Sound Dialogue Sound Field the acoustical area covered by speaker placement in a surround sound setup activated by multichannel sound Soundstage the acoustical space established by the front speakers 1930s 1970s single channel SOF sound on film the sound was recorded in an optical track on the film strip o Reduction in volume limited frequency range distortion of sound o Speech delivered by characters on screen in conversation o Voice over accompanies images but not delivered by a character within the scene Used mainly in noir films o Production track the sound recorded at the point of filming o ADR automated dialogue replacement the sound RE recorder by the actors in a sound studio post filming Sound Effects Physical non speech sounds heard as part of the action and physical environment seen on screen o Ambient sound Naturally occurring low level produced by environment traffic birds etc Sounds produced by specific actions throwing a rock threw a window glass breaking Room tone the acoustical properties of a room itself o Foley technique live performance and recording of sound effects in synchronization with the picture Music 1 Spotting the composer consults with director to view the final cut edit to determine where and when the music should be needed Temp track a temporary musical track derived from another score which the director asks the composer to create a new score of similar sound 2 Cue Sheet a detailed description of each scene s action requiring music plus the exact timings of each action 3 Composing Sequencers allow the composer to lock the score onto the video s digital time code 4 Performance and Recording the new composition is performed and recorder on a sound stage where the movie is also being shown Streamers line imprinted on the film or video to establish tempo within a scene marking the beginning and end of each cue Functions of Music 1 Setting the Scene 2 Adding Emotional Meaning 3 Serving as Background Filler 4 Creating Continuity place idea or emotion 5 Emphasizing Climaxes Leitmotif structure a musical label associated with a particular character Sound Designer controls edits manipulates the sounds of a motion picture Realistic Sounds match the properties of a real source Synthetic Sounds have no counterpart in actual life yet the bond with the images on screen ex E T Differences between SOUND and IMAGE 1 What viewers notice about pictures and sound 2 How pictures and sound structure time Codes of Sound Design Sound hierarchy o Dialogue is most important factor Sound perspective designates the ways that sound conveys properties of the physical spaces seen on screen o Doppler Effect as an object approaches or recedes the sound it makes changes depending on direction in order to convey movement o Direct Sound comes immediately from the source spoken into a microphone o Reflected Sound reflects off surround areas NO reverb HAS reverb Sound bridges dialogue or other sounds transition between the passage of time or one cut to another cut Off screen sound space part of the dramatic action of a scene but its source is off camera gunshot noise without the vision of the gun o Diegetic sound sound that occurs within the story world which the characters can o Non Diegetic sound sound that is not part of the story which characters are hear dialogue ambient noise unaware of music score etc Sound montage the editing of sounds into highly intricate and complex patterns that create meaning and emotion for the viewer

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BC FILM 2202 - Sound Design

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