Ole Miss PSY 201 - Science as Safeguard against Bias

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Science as Safeguard against Bias . . .Monday Psy 201 --- 1/27/14Time- 3:00-3:50Uncritical Acceptance- The tendency to believe claims because they seem true or because it would be nice if they were trueo Conformation Bias- Tendency to seek out evidence that supports our beliefs and neglect or distorts evidence contradicts them- “it’s my story and I’m sticking to it”Good Scientist- Recognize they might be wrong or off- Scientific knowledge is ALWAYS open to revision- Continuously updating findings (Your psychology text)The Scientific Method- Six basic elementso Making observationso Defining a problemo Propose a hypothesiso Gathering evidence/testing the hypothesis (make sure its specific)o Theory Buildingo Publishing resultsTesting Hypothesis- Hypothesis: scientifically testable predicted outcome of an experiment.- Operational definition: defines a scientific concept by stating specific actions or procedures used to measure it.Theory Building- Theory: a system of ideas that interrelates facts and concepts, summarizes existing data, and predicts future observations.- A good theory is potentially falsifiableWhat is Pseudoscience?- Set of claims that seem scientific but aren’t o Lack safeguards against biaseso Does not rely on critical thinking- Signs of Pseudoscience?o Example: Overreliance on anecdotesWhy should we care?- Opportunity cost- Direct HarmScientific Skepticism- Approach of evaluating all claims with an open mind and insisting on persuasive evidence before accepting them - Hallmark of SS - critical.scientificthinkingScientific Thinking Principles 1. Ruling out rival hypothesis2. Correlation vs. Causation- Correlation means association- Correlation DOES NOT equal causation3. Falsifiability- for a claim to be meaningful4. Replicalitiy- findings must be duplicated5. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence- Example- facilitated communication with a case study6. Occam’s Razor (parsimony)- simplest explanation for a given set of data is the best one.Wednesday 1/29/14History and Research of Psychology (Chapter One)Old Schools: Structuralism and Functionalism- Wilhelm Wundt: “Father of Psychology” and made first psychology laboratory- Structuralism: analyze sensations and personal experience into basic elements- Functionalism: analyze how behavior and mental abilities help people adapt to their environments.(Cognitive) Behaviorism- Behaviorism: emphasis on overt, observable behavior.- Cognitive Behaviorism: dual emphasis on behavioral principles and cognition to explain behavior.o John Watsono B.F. Skinnero Aaron BeckGestalt psychology- Gestalt psychology: emphasis the study of thinking, learning and perception in the whole units.Psychoanalysis- Psychoanalysis: approach to psychotherapy, development, and personality that emphasized the structure of and conflicts between unconscious forces.Humanistic Psychology- Humanism: focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals.- SELF-ACTULIZATION ( pursue inner talent , creativity fulfillment)- SELF-ESTEEM (achievement mastery, recognition, respect)- BELONGING- LOVE- SAFETY- PHYSIOLOGICALPsychology Today- Three broad perspectives, bio psychological, psychological, and sociocultural, shaped modern psychology- A lot of psychologists are eclectic, drawing insights from a variety of perspectives since a single perspective is unlikely to explain all human behavior.The Biological Perspective- Bio psychological view: behavior is shaped by internal physical, chemical, and biological processes.- Evolutionary view: behavior is shaped by the process if evolution. The Psychological Perspective- Behavioral view: behavior is shaped by ones environment- Cognitive view: behavior is shaped by mental processing of information- Psychodynamic view: behavior is shaped by unconscious processes- Humanistic view: behavior is shaped by self-image, subjective perceptions, and needs for personal growth.The Sociocultural Perspective- Sociocultural view: behavior is shaped by ones social and cultural contexto Because of cultural relativity, behavior must be judged relative to the values and social norms and the culture in which it occurs.o Psychologists need to be aware of the impact cultural diversity may have on our behaviors.Types of Research DesignNaturalistic Observation- Watching behavior in real world settings- Advantage- high in external validity- Disadvantage- low in internal validity- ReactivityNatural Observation example- Rosenhan’s study of psychiatric hospitalizationCase Study Designs- Examines one person or a small m=number of people in depth over time.Friday 1/31/14Correlational Designs- Research design that examines the extent to which two variables are associated.- Identifying correlational designs – see words like associated, related, linked, went together.o Correlation does NOT go with causationo Ranges from -1 to 1o 0 meaning NO correlationThe Psychological Experiment- Permit cause-and-effect inferences- MANIPULATE variables- Experiments requireo Random assignmento Manipulation of an independent variable (IV)Experimental Design- Random Assignmento Randomly sorting patients into groups (often experimental group and control group)- Manipulation of an Independent variable- IV – treatment or intervention that the experimenter manipulates or “varies” - Dependent variable (DV) – variable that the experimenter measures to see whether the manipulation has an effectReliability and Validity- Reliabilityo Consistency or measurement- Validity o Accuracy of measuremento Does the measure assess what it claims to?Confounds- Extraneous Variableo Any differences between the experimental and control groups other than the IVo Limits our ability to infer causality to the IVTypes of Extraneous Factors- Placebo effecto Improvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement- Demand characteristicso Cues that the participants pick up from a study that allow them to generate guesses regarding the researcher’s hypotheses.- Social Desirability- Experimenter Bias Effecto Phenomenon in which researchers’ hypotheses’ lead them to unintentionally bias the outcome of the results- Double Blind- Clever Hans (mathematical horse)Survey Method- Random selectiono Procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate.o Necessary if we want out sample to accurately reflect the population- How is random selection different from random assignment?Stati/stics- Application

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