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Psychology 201 Teacher- HYMEL, KRISTEN ANNE Cognitive Revolution, 1960s-170s cognition (thinking) and conditioning better explain behavior our thoughts influence our behaviors often in treatment of anxiety/ depression Psychoanalytic Psychology- Sigmund Freud -Influenced by unconscious wishes, thoughts, and desires, especially sex andaggression / childhood makes use who weave -Repression occurs when threatening thoughts are unconsciously helps out ofawareness / Freudian slips: you meant what you said Psychoanalysis (talking cure) - 1 st psychotherapy= treatment last longer than drugs Explored unconscious conflicts and emotional problems Humanism Carl Roger and Abraham Maslow - Human experience, potentials, ideals and problems -Each person has innate goodness and is able to use free will Concept: self-image self-evaluation Frame of reference self- actualization (truly works) Field of Psychology -Experimental- Learning new things, test * Biological * Congnitive- think, remember * Social cyber * Developmental: body to adult hood- old age Applied taking in every day life clinical counseling educational school psychometric- IQ , depression test industrial engineering/ergonomicsEmpirical Evidence Evidence based on direct observation and measurement -Systematic: carefully planned -Inter subjective: conformable by more than one observer Scientific Method! Goal of psychology Description: What? Understanding/ Explanation: Why? Prediction Control Application: the use of it Critical Thinking -Few truths transcend the need for logical analysis and empirical testing -Critical thinkers often wonder what it would take to show that a truth is false -Authority or claimed expertise does not automatically make an idea true or false -Judging the quality of evidence is crucial. Pseudo psychologies: Any unfounded system that resembles psychology and NOT based on scientific testing Types of superstitions -Ex: Phrenology, Palmistry, Graphology, Astrology The Scientific Method: Critical thinking based on careful collection of evidence, precise definition, controlled observation, and repeatable results. Making observation defining a problem proposing a hypothesis -operational definition: classify what we want to see Gathering evidence/ testing the hypothesis -Analysis Theory building/ Conclusions Publishing results Conducting Research: Observational Research -case History/study -Limitation? Only one personalitynaturalistic observation: in a natural setting -Jane Goodall -Limitation? You can effect behavior -Observer -Observer bias Conducting Research: Observation Research Correctional Studies non experimental study designed to measure the degree of relationship (if any) between two or more variable -strength (-1to 0 to +1) Directions Positive High scores on both measures Negative -High scores on one associated with low score on the.....(graph not included) Illusory correlation: is not really truth the full moon, crime rate increase, birth Conducting Research *Experimental research -Cause and effect relationship -need at least 2 groups -1 Experimental group: get the drug -1 Control group : does not variable condition that may effect the outcome independent manipulate dependent variable *measure observed effects Confounding variable:----> your results <--- Evaluating Results statistical significance occur rarely by chance alone less than 5 experiments out of 100 p< 0.05 Limitations of Experiments: Participant bias place boo effect:-over come this: single blind Researchers bias: answers?'s Double blind: no one knows what their getting Must Include: Replicability Parsimonious -simplest explanation non- Anecdotal: see things happen over and over ,,, But never know the true clause Research Ethics *Institutional Review Board (IRB) *Human research: informed consent *Confidentiality *Debriefing will not tell you what their testing *Right to withdrawal Institutional Animal care and be committee (IACUC) Animal research Veterinarian, Research affiliated and Random member -Reduce -Refine


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Ole Miss PSY 201 - Cognitive Revolution

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