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PSYCHOLOGY 2000 FINAL REVIEW CHAPTER 1Understand the relationship (or non-relationship, however you want to view it) between correlation vs. causationBiggest error that people make about correlation is to assume that it means one variable isthe cause of the other. Correlation DOES NOT prove causation. Just as smoking cigs accounts for 438,000 deaths in the US alone, correlation by itself can’t be used to prove causation If I give you an example of an idea/principle from Gestalt theory, psychoanalysis, or behaviorism, be able to associate it with the correct theoryGestalt- early perspective in psychology focusing on perception and sensation, particularlythe perception of patterns and whole figures- “Whole is greater than the sum of it’s parts”- people naturally seek out patterns (wholes) in sensory information available to them- cognitive psychology- Wertheimer Psychoanalysis- theory and therapy based on the work of Freud - psychotherapy: process in which a trained psychological professional helps a person gain insight into and change his/her behavior- personality formed in the first 6 years of life, if there was an issue it began in the first 6 years of lifeBehaviorism- science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only- unconditioned stimulus, conditioned stimulus, reflex, - focus back on observable behavior and ignore “consciousness” issue; early work examined phobiasBe able to identify dependent and independent variables if I give you an example experiment.Dependent: variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behaviorof the subjects in the experiment. Behavior depends on whether or not they were exposed to the independent variable- Measure of aggressive behavior in the children- Always used to measure how the independent variable may have affected experiment Independent: manipulated variable in the experiement because it’s independent of anything the participants - Presence/absence of violence in the cartoonsWhat are the differences between a psychologist and a psychiatrist? What are psychiatric social workers?Psychologist: professional with an academic degree and specialized training in one or more areas of psychology, PhD but not medical, must be liscensedPsychiatrist: medical degree that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disordersPsychiatric Social Workers: social worker with some training in therapy methods who focuses on environmental conditions that can have an impact on mental disorders, such aspoverty, over-crowding, stress, and drug abuseUnderstand the placebo effect.Phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior CHAPTER 2 Know and be able to differentiate between the divisions of the nervous system (e.g., figure 2.1)- What is the difference between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system? Centeral vs. peripheral?Know the difference between an agonist and an antagonist. If I give you an example you should be able to identify which role a drug is playing.Agonist: chemical substances that mimic or enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the next cell, increasing or decreasing the activity of the cell- Black widow spider venom releases excess of acetylcholine which causes convulsions and possible deathAntagonist: chemical substances that block or reduce a cell’s response to the action of other chemicals or neurotransmitters- South American Indians blow dartblocks acetylcholineBe familiar with neurotransmitters: Serotonin, Dopamine, GABA, EndorphinsSerotonin: excitatory or inhibitory; involved in mood, sleep, and sppetiteDopamine: Excitatory or inhibitory; involved in control of movement and sensations of pleasureGABA: major inhibitory neurotransmitter; involved in sleep and inhibits memoryEndorphins: inhibitory neural regulators; involved in pain reliefWhat are the roles of the hippocampus, hypothalamus, thalamus, amygdyla, and cerebellum?Hippocampus: curved structure located within each temporal lobe, responsible for the formation of long-term memories and the storage of memory for location of objects, plays role in our learning, memory, and ability to compare sensory information to expectationsHypothalamus: part of the forebrain that regulates the amount of fear, thirst, sexual drive,and aggression we feelThalamus: part of the limbic system located in the center of the brain, this structure relayssensory information from the lower part of the brain to the proper areas of the cortex and processes some sensory information before sending it to it’s proper areaAmygdyla: brain structure located near the hippocampus, responsible for fear responses and memory of fearCerebellum: part of the lower brain located behind the pons that controls and coordinates involuntary, rapid, fine motor movementWhat are the primary roles of each lobe of the brain (temporal, parietal, occipital, frontal?Temporal Lobes: areas of the cortex located just behind the temples containing the neurons responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speechParietal Lobes: sections of the brain located at the top and back of each cerebral hemisphere containing the centers for touch, taste, and temperature sensationsOccipital Lobes: section of the brain located at the rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere containing the visual centers of the brain Frontal Lobe: areas of the cortex located in the front and top of the brain, responsible for higher mental processes and decision making as well as the production of fluent speech What are Wernicke’s area and Broca’s area, and what happens when they are damaged?Wernickle: left temporal lobe (understanding the meaning of words); aphasia conditionresulting from damage casuing the affected person to be unable to understand or produce meaningful languageBroca: part of left frontal lobe that helps speak smoothly and fluently; causing the affected person to be unable to speak fluently, to mispronounce words, and to speak haltinglyCHAPTER 3What are rods and cones, and what role do they play in how we see in day vs at night? How do they function differently with regard to adaptation?Rods: visual sensory receptors found at the back of the retina, responsible for non-color sensitivity to low levels of light (night)Cones: visual sensory receptors found at the back of the retina, responsible for color vision and sharpness of vision (day)What is habituation? Sensory adaptation?


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LSU PSYC 2000 - FINAL REVIEW

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