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Ch. 12 Outline: Social Psychology- What is social psychology?o Study of how a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others- What are social influence, conformity, and group think?o Social Influence: the process through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individualo Social Norms: The customary rules that govern behavior in groups and societieso Conformity: Changing one’s own behavior to match that of other people Ex: Line conformity testo Groupthink: occurs when people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned. - What is compliance and what are some ways to induce it?o Compliance: changing one’s behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change. Ex: Recyclingo 4 ways to gain compliance: Foot-in-the-door technique: asking for a small commitment and, after gaining compliance, asking for a bigger commitment Door-in-the-face technique: asking for a large commitment and being refused, and then asking for a smaller commitment Lowball technique: getting a commitment from a person and then raising the cost of that commitment That’s-not-all technique: the persuader makes an offer and then adds something extra to make the offer look better before the target person can make a decision- Group polarization: members involved in a group discussion take a more extreme positions and suggest riskier actions than individuals who have not participated in a group discussion- What is obedience?o Obedience: Changing one’s behavior at the command of an authority figureo Milgram study: “teacher” administered what he or she thought were real shocks toa “learner”- 2/3 of the participants were basically willing to kill the learner because an authority figure (man in a white coat) told them to do so- This experiment is now seen as completely unethical- What are social loafing and facilitation?o Social facilitation: the presence of other people to have a positive impact on the performance of an easy tasko Social loafing: people put less effort into a task when working with others on that task- What are attitudes, what are their components, and how good at they at predicting behavior?o Attitude: a tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea, or situation 1. Affective (emotional) component 2. Behavioral component (actions) 3. Cognitive component (thoughts)o Attitudes are often poor predictors of behavior unless the attitude is very specific or very strong- How are attitudes formed?o Direct contact with person, situation, object or ideao Direct instruction from parents or otherso Interacting with other people who hold a certain attitudeo Vicarious conditioning: watching the actions and reactions of others to ideas, people, objects, and situations- What is persuasion?o Persuasion: one person tries to change the belief, opinion. Position, or course of action of another person through argument, pleading, or explanation Key elements: source of the message, the message itself, and the target audience- What is cognitive dissonance?o Cognitive dissonance: Sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person’sbehavior does not correspond to that person’s impression Lessened by changing the conflicting behavior, changing the conflicting attitude, or forming a new attitude to justify the behavior- What are social cognition and impression formation?o Social cognition: the mental processes that people use to make sense of the social world around themo Impression formation: forming of the first knowledge a person has about another person Primary effect: the very first impression one has about a person tends to persist even in the face of evidence to the contrary- What does social categorization mean and how does it relate to stereotypes?o Social categorization: the assignment of a person to a category based on characteristics the new person has in common with other people with whom one has had experience in the pasto Stereotype: a set of characteristics that people believe is shared by all members of a particular social category- What is an implicit association theory? A schema?- What are attributions?o Attribution: the process of explaining one’s own behavior and the behavior of otherso Attribution theory: the theory of how people make attributions Situational cause: attributed external forces, such as delays, the action of others, or some other aspect of the situation Dispositional cause: attributed to internal factors such as personality or charactero Fundamental attribution error (actor-observer bias)- What are prejudice and discrimination and some of the theories as to why they exist?o Prejudice: negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social groupo Discrimination: treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group to which they belongo Forms of prejudice include ageism, sexism, racism, and prejudice against those who are too fat or too thino In-group and out-group In-group: social groups with whom a person identifies; “us” Out-groups: social groups with whom a person does not identify; “them”o Realistic conflict theory: conflict between groups increases prejudice and discriminationo Scapegoating: tendency to direct prejudice and discrimination at out-group members who have little social power or influenceo Social cognitive theory: views prejudice as an attitude acquired through direct instruction, modeling, and other social influenceso Social identity theory: the formation of a person’s identity within a particular social group is explained by social categorization, social identity, and social comparison Social identity: the part of the self-concept including one’s view of self as a member of a particular social category Social comparison: the comparison of oneself to others in ways that raise one’s self-esteemo Stereotype vulnerability: the effect awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavioro Self-fulfilling prophecy: the tendency of one’s expectations to affect one’s behavior in such a way as to make the expectation more likely to occur- How can we reduce prejudice?- What is attraction and what is generally necessary for it to


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LSU PSYC 2000 - Chapter 12

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