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Depressed people feel there is an external control of their life and they feel helpless, so they don’t do anything about it.Exam 4 Study GuideChapter 12 – Social Psychology1. Define conformity (book definition). (p. 449)I. Conformity Changing one’s own behavior to match that of other people2. Define cognitive dissonance (book definition). (p. 462)- Cognitive Dissonance Sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person’s behavior does not correspond to that person’s attitudes3. Define the fundamental attribution error (book definition). (p. 467)I. Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to overestimate the influence of internal factors in determining behavior while underestimating situational factors.  In other words, people tend to explain the actions of others based on what “kind” of person they are rather than looking for outside causes, such as social influences or situations. 4. What are the two routes to persuasion discussed in class? (p. 461)I. Central Route Convincing arguments People attend to the content of the message Type of information processing that involves attending to the content of the message itselfII. Peripheral route Incidental cues, like an attractive presenter A style of information processing that relies on peripheral cues (cues outside of the message content itself), such as the expertise of the message source, the length of the message, and other factors that have nothing to do with the message content5. What are two persuasion techniques discussed in class? (p. 452)I. Foot-In-The-Door technique  When compliance with a smaller request is followed by a larger request, people are quite likely to comply b/c they have already agreed to the smaller one and they want to behave consistently with their previous response The small request acts as an opener.II. Door-In-Face technique  The larger request comes first, which is usually refused. This is followed by a second smaller and more reasonable request that often gets compliance. This technique relies on the norm of reciprocity, which basically assumes that if someone does something for a person, the person should do something in return. 6. How can group discussions influence attitudes? (Graph p. 457)- Conformity Changing one’s own behavior to match that of another person- Groupthink More enchanted with idea than the reality and the consequences  Kind of thinking that occurs when people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned- Group Polarization If theory is shared then it will intensify.  The tendency for members involved in a group discussion to take somewhat more extreme positions and suggest riskier actions whencompared to individuals who have not participated in a group discussion. - Social Facilitation The tendency for the presence of other people to have a positive impact on the performance of an easy task The presence of others creates just enough increased arousal to improve performance. You do easy tasks better in front of groups You do difficult tasks worse in front of groups- Social Loafing The tendency for people to put less effort into a simple task when working with other on that task Decrease performance b/c you rely on others to do the work Men from individual countries are most likely Why?o Deindividuation  Lose my self-awareness/restraint when no one is watching.  Less observed = more freeo Wearing masks increases deindividuation- Minority Influence: One or two people can sway a group when they:a) Have a consistent messageb) Don’t come across as rigid or dogmaticc) Have views consistent with what is currently “popular” or “correct”7. What are the 3 biggest predictors of attraction? (p. 474)I. Proximity Geographic locationo People choose friends and lovers from the pool of people available to them, and availability depends heavily on proximity. Mere exposureo One theory of why proximity is important involves the idea of repeated exposure to new stimuli. (The more you hear a song, the more you like it)II. Physical AttractivenessIII. Similarity  Birds of a feather flock together 8. What is social exchange theory? What social norms might affect altruistic behavior?- Social Exchange Theory States human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one's rewards and minimize ones costs- Altruism Prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself Norms that might affect altruistic behavior:o Reciprocity If someone has helped us in the past we feel obligated to help themo Social responsibility Helping those who cannot help us Why we overcome the cost v. benefit 9. What is kin selection?- Kin Selection An evolutionary theory that proposes that people are more likely to help those who are blood relatives because it will increase the odds of gene transmission to future generations.10. What are the 5 types of EXPLICIT prejudice? (p. 469)I. In-group Bias “like us” Everybody have a natural tendency to identify people that are like themselves and they socialize with themII. Out-group Prejudice “NOT like us” or “them”III. Stereotype – Generalized Belief Women are maternal; men are aggressive IV. Prejudice - Unjustified Attitude V. Discrimination - Unjustified Behavior10. What are the 5 types of IMPLICT prejudice?I. Unconscious Patronization You have a belief that you have to cut slack to one group over anotherII. Race-Influenced Perceptions ex. Perceives an object in a certain race’s hand is a weapon even if it isn't III. Seeing Black Has to do with the actual facial featuresIV. Reflexive Body ResponsesV. Implicit Associations If you view an object in a positive way then it is easier to associate a positive word for it and vice versa Chapter 13 – Personality1. What drives the id, ego, and superego? Which parts are conscious and which are unconscious (hint: refer to the iceberg diagram in the slides)? (p. 496)- Id- unconscious part of our brain Part of the personality present at birth and completely unconscious andpleasure seekingo Containing all of the basic biological drives: Hunger, thirst, self-preservation, and sex The Pleasure Principleo It feels good, do ito The desire for immediate gratification of needs with no regard for the consequences. 


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LSU PSYC 2000 - Exam 4 Study Guide

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